Marine Biology

, Volume 147, Issue 1, pp 153–162 | Cite as

Patella aspera and P. ulyssiponensis: genetic evidence of speciation in the North-east Atlantic

Research Article

Abstract

The group of subspecies of Patella ulyssiponensis, described by Christiaens, was widely known as Patella aspera until recently. The group extends throughout the Mediterranean, on all Macaronesian islands, along the North African coast, and in Europe, as far north as southern Norway. Throughout its range it displays great variation in shell sculpture and colour. The aim of this work was to re-examine the various subspecies proposed by Christiaens and, genetically, to test the hypothesis that European continental populations belong to a different species than the one composed by Macaronesian (north-west African) populations. In the present work, this group was studied by allozyme electrophoresis of 21 loci and by six morphological variables. The monomorphic locus of malate dehydrogenase (Mdh-1) was found to be diagnostic for distinguishing European continental populations from those of north-west African archipelagos, confirming the specific status of both groups. The allele observed at this locus in the Macaronesian populations was novel, while European continental populations showed a plesiomorphic one, shared with all other north-west Atlantic patellids with the exception of Patina pellucida, suggesting a more recent origin of the Macaronesian species from the continental forms. Both species showed a genetic identity of 0.730±0.061, which allowed rough estimations of 6.5–3 Mya since speciation. The subspecies Patella ulyssiponensis deserta described by Christiaens was not confirmed by our genetic data. Other loci (glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and the second locus of lactate dehydrogenase) were partially diagnostic, in which both species showed different most common alleles. Morphologically, both species are easily recognised by shell characters and the results agree with previous findings, that continental populations are more homogeneous in shell morphology and radula characters than populations from the Macaronesia. This work supports retention of the earliest valid name, Patella ulyssiponensis Gmelin, with Lisbon, Portugal as type locality, for the European continental species, and Patella aspera Röding for the Macaronesian populations. Population subdivision within species was measured by theta, the estimator of Fst, showing in both P. aspera and P. ulyssiponensis a high degree of genetic structuring (θ=0.226 and 0.182, respectively) mostly explained by the large distances separating the populations within species.

References

  1. Christiaens J (1973) Révision du genre Patella (Mollusca, Gastropoda). Bull Mus Nat Hist Natl 3:1305–1392Google Scholar
  2. Cook LM (1996) Habitat, isolation and the evolution of Madeiran landsnails. Biol J Linn Soc 59:457–470CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Côrte-Real HBSM (1992) Taxonomy and population genetics of exploited species of Patella in the Azores, Madeira, and Canaries. Thesis, University of Liverpool, Port ErinGoogle Scholar
  4. Côrte-Real HBSM, Hawkins SJ, Thorpe JP (1996a) Population differentiation and taxonomic status of the exploited limpet Patella candei in the Macaronesian islands (Azores, Madeira, Canaries). Mar Biol 125:141–152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Côrte-Real HBSM, Hawkins SJ, Thorpe JP (1996b) An interpretation of the taxonomic relationship between limpets, Patella rustica and Patella piperata. J Mar Biol Assoc UK 76:717–732Google Scholar
  6. Farris JS (1981) Cladistics and Molecular Biology. Distance data in phylogenetic analysis. In: Funk, VA, Brooks, DR (eds) Advances in cladistics. Proceedings of the first meeting of the Willi Hennig Society. Allen Press, Lawrence, pp 3–24Google Scholar
  7. Fisher-Piette E (1938) The concept of species and geographical isolation in the case of north Atlantic Patella. Proc Linn Soc London 150:268–275Google Scholar
  8. Geldmacher J, Hoernle K (2000) The 72 Ma geochemical evolution of the Madeira hotspot (eastern North Atlantic): recycling of Paleozoic (<500 Ma) oceanic lithosphere. Earth Planet Sci Lett 183:73–92CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Goudet J (2001) FSTAT, a program to estimate and test gene diversities and fixation indices (version 2.9.3). Available from http://www.unil.ch/izea/softwares/fstat.html
  10. Graur D, Li W-H (2000) Fundamentals of molecular evolution, 2nd edn. Sinauer, Sunderland, Mass.Google Scholar
  11. Guerra MT, Gaudêncio MJ (1986) Aspects of the ecology of Patella spp. on the Portuguese coast. Hydrobiologia 142:57–69CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Hawkins SJ, Burnay LP, Neto AI, Tristão da Cunha R, Frias-Martins AMA (1990) A description of the zonation patterns of molluscs and other important biota on the south coast of São Miguel, Azores. Açoreana [Suppl] 21–38Google Scholar
  13. Hawkins SJ, Côrte-Real HBSM, Pannacciulli FG, Weber LI, Bishop JDD (2000) Thoughts on the ecology and evolution of the intertidal biota of the Azores and other Atlantic islands. Hydrobiologia 440:3-17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Juan C, Emerson BC, Oromí P, Hewitt GM (2000) Colonization and diversification: towards a phylogeographic synthesis for the Canary Islands. Trends Ecol Evol 15:14–109CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Koufopanou V, Reid DG, Ridway SA, Thomas RH (1999) A molecular Phylogeny of the Patellid limpets (Gastropoda: Patellidae) and its implications for the origins of their antitropical distribution. Mol Phylogenet Evol 11:138–156CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Mauro A, Arculeo M, Parrinello N (2003) Morphological and molecular tools in identifying the Mediterranean limpets Patella caerulea, Patella aspera and Patella rustica. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 295:131–143CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Miller MP (1999) Tools for population genetic analyses. A windows program for the analysis of allozymes and molecular population genetic data. v. 1.3. Department of Biological Sciences. Northern Arizona UniversityGoogle Scholar
  18. Muñoz MA, Acuña JD (1994) On the taxonomic discrimination between Patella aspera Röding and P. caerulea Linnaeus (Gastropoda: Patellidae) using conchological traits. J Conch Lond 35:37–43Google Scholar
  19. Nei M (1978) Estimation of average heterozygosity and genetic distance from small number of individuals. Genetics 89: 583–590Google Scholar
  20. Ridgway SA, Reid DG, Taylor JD, Branch, GM, Hodgson AN (1998) A cladistic phylogeny of the family Patellidae (Mollusca: Gastropoda). Philos Trans R Soc Lond B 353:1645–1671Google Scholar
  21. Sella G, Robotti CA, Biglione V (1993) Genetic divergence among three sympatric species of Mediterranean Patella (Archaeogastropoda). Mar Biol 115:401–405CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Schmincke H-U (1973) Magmatic evolution and tectonic regime in the Canary, Madeira, and Azores Island groups. Geol Soc Am Bull 84:633–648Google Scholar
  23. StatSoft 1993. STATISTICA for Windows, v. 4.5. StatSoft, Tulsa, Okla.Google Scholar
  24. Swofford DL, Selander, RB (1981) BIOSYS 1: a Fortran program for the comprehensive analysis of electrophoretic data in population genetics and systematics. J Hered 72: 281–283Google Scholar
  25. Thorpe JP (1989) Possible effects of interprotein variation in mean rate of aminoacid substitution on the relationship of genetic distance with time since evolutionary divergence. Biol J Linn Soc 37:335–344Google Scholar
  26. Weber LI, Hawkins SJ (2002) Evolution of the limpet Patella candei d’Orbigny (Mollusca, Patellidae) in Atlantic archipelagos: human intervention and natural processes. Biol J Linn Soc 77:341–353CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Weber LI, Gray DR, Hodgson AN, Hawkins SJ (1997) Genetic divergence between South African Helcion species and North-east Atlantic H. pellucidum (Mollusca: Patellogastropoda). J Mar Biol Assoc UK 77: 1139–1150Google Scholar
  28. Weber LI, Thorpe JP, Santos RS, Hawkins SJ (1998) Identification of stocks of the exploited limpets Patella aspera and P. candei at Madeira Archipelago by allozyme electrophoresis. J Shellfish Res 17:945–954Google Scholar
  29. Wilkins NP (1977) Genetic variability in littoral gastropods: phosphoglucose isomerase and phosphogluconate in Patella vulgata and P. aspera. Mar Biol 40:151–155CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Yeh FC, Boyle, TJB (1997) Population genetic analysis of co-dominant and dominant markers and quantitative traits. Belg J Bot 129:157Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Port Erin Marine LaboratoryUniversity of LiverpoolIsle of Man
  2. 2.Laboratory of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, CTTMarUniversidade do Vale do Itajaí – UNIVALIBrazil
  3. 3.The Marine Biological Association of the United KingdomPlymouthUK
  4. 4.Biodiversity and Ecology Division, School of Biological ScienceUniversity of SouthamptonUK

Personalised recommendations