Marine Biology

, Volume 145, Issue 5, pp 849–862 | Cite as

The effect of water movement, temperature and salinity on abundance and reproductive patterns of Macrocystis spp. (Phaeophyta) at different latitudes in Chile

  • A. H. Buschmann
  • J. A. Vásquez
  • P. Osorio
  • E. Reyes
  • L. Filún
  • M. C. Hernández-González
  • A. Vega
Research Article

Abstract

This study describes the density variation and phenology of Macrocystis integrifolia and M. pyrifera populations from northern and southern Chile, respectively. Samples of both species were taken in wave-exposed and wave-protected areas. In addition, spore production, germination and early growth rate of sporophytes of each population was studied at monthly intervals under three temperature and salinity regimes. Results indicate that M. integrifolia from northern Chile presents perennial plants with a mean density of three individuals per 0.25 m2 throughout the year and that it reproduces mainly during spring and winter. Although, M. pyrifera in exposed areas of southern Chile also have a perennial-type life strategy, they are able to reproduce all year round. In contrast, M. pyrifera populations in protected areas of southern Chile show a clear annual cycle, with high recruitment during late winter and fertile sporophytes in summer and autumn, although the populations become completely decimated thereafter. The effect of temperature and salinity on M. integrifolia shows that it is independent of water movement, but requires low temperatures and high salinities for the release of zoospores, germination and early sporophyte growth. This pattern differs from that of M. pyrifera in southern Chile, which has a broader tolerance range for salinity and temperature than does M. integrifolia. However, in southern Chile wave-protected populations showed higher spore release and germination at 15°C and 18°C, whereas sporophyte growth responded better at the lowest temperature tested (8°C). In general, these results are contrary to those expected, since a seasonal reproductive pattern was observed in M. integrifolia inhabiting a less seasonally variable environment. In exposed sites of southern Chile, plants showed greater tolerance and continuous reproduction throughout the year, despite the greater environmental variability. Finally, population dynamics of protected kelps in southern Chile shows an annual pattern, which is contrary to the expected perennial strategy shown by exposed populations.

References

  1. Battey NH, Lyndon RF (1990) Reversion of flowering. Bot Rev 56:162–189Google Scholar
  2. Buschmann AH (1992) Algal communities of a wave-protected intertidal rocky shore in southern Chile. In: Seeliger U (ed) Coastal plant communities of Latin America. Academic, Orlando, Fla., pp 91–104Google Scholar
  3. Camus PA (1994) Dinámica geográfica en poblaciones de Lessonia nigrescens Bory (Phaeophyta) en el norte de Chile: importancia de la extinción local durante eventos de El Niño de gran intensidad. Invest Cienc Tecnol Ser Cienc Mar 3:58–70Google Scholar
  4. Castilla JC, Camus PA (1992) The Humboldt–El Niño scenario: coastal benthic resources and anthropogenic influences, with particular references to the 1982–83 ENSO. S Afr J Mar Sci 12:703–712Google Scholar
  5. Dayton PK (1985) The structure and regulation of some South American kelp communities. Ecol Monogr 55:447–468Google Scholar
  6. Dayton PK, Tegner MJ (1984) Catastrophic storms and patch stability in a southern California kelp community. Science 224:283–285Google Scholar
  7. Doty M (1971) Measurements in water movement in reference to benthic algal growth. Bot Mar 14:32–35Google Scholar
  8. Druehl LD (1979) The distribution of Macrocystis integrifolia in British Columbia as related to environmental parameters. Can J Bot 56:59–69Google Scholar
  9. Druehl LD, Wheeler WN (1986) Population biology of Macrocystis integrifolia from British Columbia, Canada. Mar Biol 90:173–179Google Scholar
  10. Edwards MS (2003) The role of alternate life-history stages of a marine macroalga: a seed bank analogue? Ecology 81:2404–2415Google Scholar
  11. Gerard VA (1982) In situ rates of nitrate uptake by giant kelp, Macrocystis pyrifera. Mar Biol 69:51–54Google Scholar
  12. Gerard VA (1984) Physiological effects of El Niño on giant kelp in southern California. Mar Biol Lett 5:317–322Google Scholar
  13. Graham MH (1996) Effect of high irradiance on recruitment of the giant kelp Macrocystis (Phaeophyta) in shallow waters. J Phycol 32:903–906Google Scholar
  14. Graham MH, Harrold C, Lisin S, Light K, Watanabe JM, Foster MS (1997) Population dynamics of giant kelp Macrocystis pyrifera along a wave exposure gradient. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 148:269–279Google Scholar
  15. Harrold C, Reed DC (1985) Food availability, sea urchin grazing, and kelp forest community structure. Ecology 66:1160–1169Google Scholar
  16. Hoffmann A, Santelices B (1991) Banks of algal microscopic forms: hypotheses and their function and comparison with seed banks. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 79:185–194Google Scholar
  17. Hoffmann AJ, Santelices B (1997) Marine Flora of Central Chile. Ediciones Universidad Católica de Chile, SantiagoGoogle Scholar
  18. Kinlan BP, Graham MH, Sala E, Dayton PK (2003) Arrested development of giant kelp (Macrocystis pyrifera, Phaeophyceae) embryonic sporophytes: a mechanism for delayed recruitment in perennial kelp? J Phycol 39:47–57CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Ladah LB, Zertuche-González JA, Hernández-Carmona G (1999) Giant kelp (Macrocystis pyrifera, Phaeophyceae) recruitment near its southern limit in Baja California, alter mass disappearance during ENSO 1997–1998. J Phycol 35:1006–1012CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Lyndon RF (1992) The environmental control of reproductive development. In: Marshall C, Grace J (eds) Fruit and seed production. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 9–32Google Scholar
  21. Martínez EA, Cárdenas L, Pinto R (2003) Recovery and genetic diversity of the intertidal kelp Lessonia nigrescens 20 years after El Niño 1982/83. J Phycol 39:504–508CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. McLachlan J (1973) Growth media—marine. In: Stein J (ed) Handbook of phycological methods. Culture methods and growth measurements. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 25–51Google Scholar
  23. North WJ, Jackson GA, Manley SL (1986) Macrocystis and its environment, knowns and unknowns. Aquat Bot 26:9–26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Ormond RFG, Banaimoon SA (1994) Ecology of intertidal macroalgal assemblages on the Hadramout coast of southern Yemen, an area of seasonal upwelling. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 105:105–120Google Scholar
  25. Pfister CA (1992) Costs reproduction in a intertidal kelp: patterns of allocation and life history consequences. Ecology 73:1589–1597Google Scholar
  26. Reed DC, Ebeling AW, Anderson TW, Anghera M (1996) Differential reproductive responses to fluctuating resources in two seaweeds with different reproductive strategies. Ecology 77:300–316Google Scholar
  27. Santelices B, Ojeda FP (1984) Population dynamics of coastal forests of Macrocystis pyrifera in Puerto Toro, Isal Navarino, southern Chile. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 14:175–183Google Scholar
  28. Santelices B, Hoffmann AJ, Aedo D, Bobadilla M, Otaíza R (1995) A bank of microscopic forms on disturbed boulders and stones in tide pools. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 129:215–228Google Scholar
  29. Seymour RJ, Tegner MJ, Dayton PK, Parnell PE (1989) Storm wave induced mortality of giant kelp, Macrocystis pyrifera, in southern California. Estuar Coast Shelf Sci 28:277–292Google Scholar
  30. Tegner MJ, Dayton PK (1987) El Niño effects on Southern California kelp forest communities. Adv Ecol Res 17:243–279Google Scholar
  31. Vásquez JA (1992) Lessonia trabeculata, a subtidal bottom kelp in northern Chile: a case of study for structural and geographical comparison. In: Seeliger U (ed) Coastal plant communities of Latin America. Academic, Orlando, Fla., pp 77–89Google Scholar
  32. Vásquez JA (1993) Abundance, distributional patterns and diets of main herbivorous and carnivorous species associated to Lessonia trabeculata kelp beds in northern Chile. Ser Ocas Fac Cienc Mar Univ Cat Norte 2:213–229Google Scholar
  33. Vásquez JA, Buschmann AH (1997) Herbivore–kelp interactions in Chilean subtidal communities: a review. Rev Chil Hist Nat 70:41–52Google Scholar
  34. Vásquez JA, Camus PA, Ojeda FP (1998) Diversity, structure and functioning of rocky coastal ecosystems in northern Chile. Rev Chil Hist Nat 71:479–499Google Scholar
  35. Westermeier R, Möller P (1990) Population dynamics of Macrocystis pyrifera (L.) C. Agardh in the rocky intertidal of southern Chile. Bot Mar 33:363–367Google Scholar
  36. Wheeler WN (1980) Effect of the boundary layer transport on the fixation of carbon by the giant kelp Macrocystis pyrifera. Mar Biol 56:103–110Google Scholar
  37. Wheeler WN (1982) Nitrogen nutrition of Macrocystis. In: Srivastava LM (ed) Synthetic and degradative processes in marine macrophytes. Gruyter, Berlin, pp 121–135Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. H. Buschmann
    • 1
  • J. A. Vásquez
    • 2
  • P. Osorio
    • 1
  • E. Reyes
    • 1
  • L. Filún
    • 1
  • M. C. Hernández-González
    • 1
  • A. Vega
    • 2
  1. 1.Centro de Investigación y Desarrollo de Recursos y Ambientes Costeros (i~mar)Universidad de Los LagosCasilla 577Chile
  2. 2.Departamento Biología Marina, Facultad de Ciencias del MarUniversidad Católica del Norte and Centro de Estudios Avanzados en Zonas Aridas (CEAZA)Casilla 117Chile

Personalised recommendations