Marine Biology

, Volume 144, Issue 5, pp 977–984 | Cite as

Reproductive isolation among morphotypes of the Atlantic seastar species Zoroaster fulgens (Asteroidea: Echinodermata)

  • Kerry L. Howell
  • Alex D. Rogers
  • Paul A. Tyler
  • David S. M. Billett
Research Article

Abstract

Zoroaster fulgens is a slope-dwelling seastar species that is distributed throughout the Atlantic Ocean. Studies into the population structure and systematics of marine animals have increasingly found that species with a reported cosmopolitan distribution are, in fact, collections of closely related cryptic or sibling species. In the Porcupine Seabight, three morphotypes of Z. fulgens can be found that have a distribution that is stratified by depth. This study investigates the genetic divergence between these morphotypes using sections of the cytochrome oxidase 1 (COI) and 16S regions of the mitochondrial genome. Bathymetrically separated morphotypes of Z. fulgens are reproductively isolated over distances of approximately 1 km while gene flow occurs among morphotypes, along isobaths, over distances of approximately 900 km. Reproductive isolation on the continental slope may have occurred as a result of selection exerted by gradients of depth-correlated physical factors, such as pressure and temperature. However, allopatric speciation with subsequent range expansion may also explain the observed patterns of genetic divergence. Further investigation of radiation within this group may provide important information on the evolution of slope species. Taxonomic revision of the genus is required.

Notes

Acknowledgements

We would like to thank the officers and crew of RRS Discovery; C. Ahearn and the Smithsonian Museum for supplying the Caribbean sample of Z. fulgens; Dr. E. Knott formerly of Duke University, Durham, U.S.A., for supplying the sample of M. platyacantha; J. Preston and B. Meldal for their advice on genetic analysis; and C.V. Pearson for assistance in the use of molecular techniques. This project was funded by a Natural Environment Research Council (NERC) research studentship (GT04/99/MS/261) awarded to K.L. Howell.

References

  1. Arndt A, Marquez C, Lambert P, Smith MJ (1996) Molecular phylogeny of eastern Pacific sea cucumbers (Echinodermata: Holothuroidea) based on mitochondrial DNA sequence. Mol Phylogenet Evol 6:425–437CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Bucklin A, Wilson RR, Smith KL (1987) Genetic differentiation of seamount and basin populations of the deep-sea amphipod Eurythenes gryllus. Deep-Sea Res I 34:1795–1810Google Scholar
  3. Chase MR, Etter RJ, Rex MA, Quattro JM (1998) Bathymetric patterns of genetic variation in a deep-sea protobranch bivalve, Deminucula atacellana. Mar Biol 131:301–308Google Scholar
  4. Cherbonnier G, Sibuet M (1972) Resultats scientifiques de la campagne Noratlante: asteroides et ophiurides. Bull Mus Natl Hist Nat 76:1333–1394Google Scholar
  5. Clark AM, Downey ME (1992) Starfishes of the Atlantic. Chapman and Hall, LondonGoogle Scholar
  6. Dickson RR, Gould WJ, Muller TJ, Maillard C (1985) Estimates of the mean circulation in the deep (>2,000 m) layer of the eastern North Atlantic. Prog Oceanogr 14:103–127CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Doebeli M, Dieckmann U (2003) Speciation along environmental gradients. Nature 421:259–264CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Downey ME (1970) Zorocallida, new order, and Doraster constellatus, new genus and species, with notes on the Zoroasteridae (Echinodermata: Asteroidea). Smithson Contrib Zool 64:1–18Google Scholar
  9. Etter RJ, Rex MA, Chase MC, Quattro JM (1999) A genetic dimension to deep-sea biodiversity. Deep-Sea Res I 46:1095–1099Google Scholar
  10. Farran GP (1913) The deep water Asteroidea, Ophiuroidea and Echinoidea of the west coast of Ireland. In: Scientific Investigations. Fisheries Branch, Department of Agriculture and Technical Instruction for Ireland, pp 1–66Google Scholar
  11. France SC (1994) Genetic population structure and gene flow among deep-sea amphipods, Abyssorchomene spp., from 6 California continental borderland basins. Mar Biol 118:67–77Google Scholar
  12. France SC, Kocher TD (1996) Geographic and bathymetric patterns of mitochondrial 16S rRNA sequence divergence among deepsea amphipods, Eurythenes gryllus. Mar Biol 126:633–643Google Scholar
  13. France SC, Hessler RR, Vrijenhoek RC (1992) Genetic differentiation between spatially disjunct populations of the deep-sea, hydrothermal vent endemic amphipod Ventiella sulfuris. Mar Biol 114:551–559Google Scholar
  14. Gage JD, Pearson M, Clark AM, Paterson GLJ, Tyler PA (1983) Echinoderms of the Rockall Trough and adjacent areas. 1. Crinoidea, Asteroidea and Ophiuroidea. Bull Brit Mus Nat Hist 45:263–308Google Scholar
  15. Hall BG (2001) Phylogenetic trees made easy: a how to manual for molecular biologists. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, Mass., USAGoogle Scholar
  16. Hart MW, Byrne M, Smith MJ (1997) Molecular phylogenetic analysis of life-history evolution in asterinid starfish. Evolution 51:1848–1861Google Scholar
  17. Howell KL, Billett DSM, Tyler PA (2002) Depth-related distribution and abundance of seastars (Echinodermata: Asteroidea) in the Porcupine Seabight and Porcupine Abyssal Plain, N.E. Atlantic. Deep-Sea Res I 49:1901–1920Google Scholar
  18. Huthnance JM, Gould WJ (1989) On the northeast Atlantic slope current. In: Neshyba SJ, Mooers CNK, Smith RL, Barber RT (eds) Poleward flows along eastern ocean boundaries. Springer, New York Berlin Heidelberg, pp 76–81Google Scholar
  19. Klautau M, Russo C, Lazoski C, Boury-Esnault N, Thorpe JP, Solé-Cava AM (1999) Does cosmopolitanism in morphologically simple species result from overconservative systematics? A case study using the marine sponge Chondrilla nucula. Evolution 53:1414–1422Google Scholar
  20. Knowlton N (1993) Sibling species in the sea. Annu Rev Ecol Syst 24:189–216Google Scholar
  21. Merrett NR, Marshall NB (1981) Observations on the ecology of deep-sea bottom living fishes collected off north west Africa. Prog Oceanogr 9:185–244CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Mortensen T (1927) The handbook of the Echinoderms of the British Isles. Backhuys, RotterdamGoogle Scholar
  23. Palumbi SR (1994) Genetic divergence, reproductive isolation, and marine speciation. Annu Rev Ecol Syst 25:547–572CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Palumbi SR (1996) What can molecular genetics contribute to marine biogeography? An urchin’s tale. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 203:75–92Google Scholar
  25. Palumbi SR (1997) Molecular biogeography of the Pacific. Coral Reefs 16[Suppl]:47–52Google Scholar
  26. Pingree RD, Lecann B (1989) Celtic and Armorican slope and shelf residual currents Prog Oceanogr 23:303–338CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Posada D, Crandall KA (1998) Modeltest: testing the model of DNA substitution. Bioinformatics 14:817–818CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Quattro JM, Chase MR, Rex MA, Greig TW, Etter RJ (2001) Extreme mitochondrial DNA divergence within populations of the deep-sea gastropod Frigidoalvania brychia. Mar Biol 139:1107–1113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Sambrook E, Fritsch F, Maniatis T (1989) Molecular cloning. Cold Spring Harbor Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  30. Swofford DL (1996) PAUP*: Phylogenetic analysis using parsimony (and other methods), version 4.0. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, Mass.Google Scholar
  31. Thompson JD, Higgins DG, Gibson TJ (1994) CLUSTAL W: improving the sensitivity of progressive multiple sequence alignment through sequence weighting, position specific gap penalties and weight matrix choice. Nucleic Acids Res 22:4673–4680PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Tyler PA, Pain SL, Gage JD, Billett DSM (1984) The reproductive biology of deep-sea forcipulate sea stars (Asteroidea, Echinodermata) from the N.E. Atlantic Ocean. J Mar Biol Assoc UK 64: 587–601Google Scholar
  33. Vrijenhoek RC, Schutz SJ, Gustafson RG, Lutz RA (1994) Cryptic species of deep-sea clams (Mollusca, Bivalvia, Vesicomyidae) from hydrothermal vent and cold-water seep environments. Deep-Sea Res I 41:1171–1189Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kerry L. Howell
    • 1
  • Alex D. Rogers
    • 2
  • Paul A. Tyler
    • 1
  • David S. M. Billett
    • 1
  1. 1.Southampton Oceanography CentreSouthamptonUK
  2. 2.British Antarctic SurveyCambridgeUK

Personalised recommendations