Wood Science and Technology

, Volume 53, Issue 1, pp 135–150 | Cite as

Inhibitory effects of Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys heterocycla f. pubescens) extracts on phytopathogenic bacterial and fungal growth

  • Yasuhiro Mori
  • Yasumitsu Kuwano
  • Shota Tomokiyo
  • Naohiko Kuroyanagi
  • Koji Odahara


Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys heterocycla f. pubescens) is an abundant but underused biomass, for which measures are required to promote its utilization. To examine whether Moso bamboo extracts can be utilized as natural pesticides for plant protection, the inhibitory effects of various extracts on phytopathogenic bacterial and fungal growth were investigated by in vitro assays. Some ethanol extracts from leaf, branch, outer culm, inner culm, and knot exhibited significant but weak effects of inhibiting the growth of two Gram-negative bacteria (Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae biovar 3 and Erwinia chrysanthemi) and two fungi (Glomerella cingulata and Trichoderma harzianum), whereas no hot water extract exhibited antimicrobial activities. Super-heated steam (SHS) extracts, particularly extracted from the culm at 210 °C, markedly inhibited the growth of two Gram-negative bacteria (P. syringae pv. actinidiae biovar 3 and E. chrysanthemi) and three fungi (Botrytis cinerea, G. cingulata, and T. harzianum) compared with ethanol extracts. Compared with bamboo vinegar, SHS extracts exhibited equal antibacterial and strong antifungal activities. Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry analysis revealed that the SHS extract contained acetic acid, propanoic acid, furfural, and small amounts of phenolic compounds (phenol, guaiacol, etc.). An acetic acid dose (approximately 120,000 ppm) equivalent to its concentration (113,327 ppm) in SHS extracts inhibited phytopathogen growth at a level comparable with that of SHS extracts, suggesting that acetic acid is mainly responsible for the antimicrobial activity of SHS extracts. Additionally, pH-increased SHS extracts did not greatly inhibit fungal growth, indicating that the antifungal effects are pH dependent. Thus, it is more effective to use SHS for culm extraction for utilizing Moso bamboo biomass as a natural pesticide.



We thank Dr. Takaaki Ishii (Fukuoka Agriculture and Forestry Research Center), Dr. Kazuhiro Miyazaki (Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute, Kyushu Research Center), and Tomonori Suzuki (Oita Prefectural Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries Research Center) for providing bacteria and fungi. We are grateful for the insightful discussions with Dr. Haruo Nishida (Graduate School of Life Science and Systems Engineering, Kyushu Institute of Technology), Dr. Kuniyoshi Shimizu (Faculty of Agriculture, Kyushu University), and Takehiro Yasuoka (Bamboo Techno Co., Ltd.). We benefited from invaluable technical support for operating GC–MS by Kazunobu Gondo (Kurume Research Park Co., Ltd.). The assistance of Akira Shima, Akihiro Tsutsumi, Michiyo Yamamoto, Mayumi Ikeda, Kuniko Okubo, and Yuri Uchida (Institute of Agricultural and Forest Resources, Fukuoka Agriculture and Forestry Research Center) in extracting from Moso bamboo and preparing culture media is greatly appreciated. We thank Enago ( for the English language review. Finally, the anonymous reviewers are gratefully acknowledged for valuable comments and suggestions.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yasuhiro Mori
    • 1
  • Yasumitsu Kuwano
    • 1
  • Shota Tomokiyo
    • 1
  • Naohiko Kuroyanagi
    • 1
  • Koji Odahara
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Biomass Utilization, Institute of Agricultural and Forest ResourcesFukuoka Agriculture and Forestry Research CenterKurumeJapan

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