Wood Science and Technology

, Volume 47, Issue 6, pp 1167–1176 | Cite as

Mill variation in bending strength and stiffness of in-grade Douglas-fir No. 2 2 × 4 lumber

  • Joseph Dahlen
  • P. David Jones
  • R. Daniel Seale
  • Rubin Shmulsky


Visually graded Douglas-fir (DF) has wide variability within grade. Variability for 2 × 4 lumber has likely increased because harvest has shifted from federal forests to private plantation forests that contain high percentages of juvenile wood. To investigate resource variability, six No. 2, 2 × 4 DF packages were acquired from six mills. From each package, 124 samples were destructively tested in bending. Mean modulus of elasticity (MOE15) ranged from 9.8 to 13.4 GPa, and three mills did not meet the grade requirements (11.0 GPa). Bending strength (F b) ranged from 5.5 to 11.3 MPa, and three mills did not meet the grade requirements (9.3 MPa). ANOVA of MOE15 % and F b showed significant differences at the 0.05 significance level. MOE15 explained from 50 to 78 % of the variability in strength. These data suggest that variation between mills is high and destructive testing is critical for more accurate characterization of lumber properties.


Moisture Content Specific Gravity Weibull Distribution Juvenile Wood Federal Land 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Conflict of interest

The authors declare they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Joseph Dahlen
    • 1
  • P. David Jones
    • 2
  • R. Daniel Seale
    • 2
  • Rubin Shmulsky
    • 2
  1. 1.Warnell School of Forestry and Natural ResourcesUniversity of GeorgiaAthensUSA
  2. 2.Department of Forest ProductsMississippi State UniversityMississippi StateUSA

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