Advertisement

Wood Science and Technology

, Volume 46, Issue 1–3, pp 193–205 | Cite as

Nanofibers from bagasse and rice straw: process optimization and properties

  • Mohammad L. Hassan
  • Aji P. Mathew
  • Enas A. Hassan
  • Nahla A. El-Wakil
  • Kristiina OksmanEmail author
Original

Abstract

Nanofibers (NF) were isolated from bleached bagasse and rice straw pulps. The pulps were refined using high-shear ultrafine grinder and then homogenized using high-pressure homogenizer. The efficiency of the used isolation processes was studied by optical microscopy (OM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and testing the tensile properties (wet and dry) of nanopaper sheets made from the nanofibers. In addition, opacity and porosity of nanopaper sheets made after different processing steps were investigated. The microscopy studies showed that the processes used resulted in nanofibers with diameters ranging from 3.5 to 60 nm. The results indicated that main isolation of nanofibers took place during refining using the ultrafine grinding process, while high-pressure homogenization resulted in smaller and more homogeneous size of nanofibers. Nanopaper sheets made from bagasse showed better wet and dry tensile strength properties than those made of rice straw.

Keywords

Atomic Force Microscopy Bagasse Rice Straw Paper Sheet Cellulose Whisker 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors would like to thank SIDA for the financial support of the collaboration between Luleå University of Technology, Sweden and National Research Center, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt.

References

  1. Alemdar A, Sain M (2008) Isolation and characterization of nanofibers from agricultural residues–Wheat straw and soy hulls. Bioresources Technology 99:1664–1671CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bhatnagar A, Sain M (2005) Processing of cellulose nanofibers reinforced composites. J Reinf Plast Compos 24:1259–1268CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bondeson D, Mathew A, Oksman K (2006) Optimization of the isolation of nanocrystals from microcrystalline cellulose by acid hydrolysis. Cellulose 13:171–180CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Chakraborty A, Sain M, Kortschot M (2005) Cellulose microfibrils: a novel method of preparation using high shear refining and cryocrushing. Holzforschung 59:102–107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Chen G, Liu G (2008) Electrospun cellulose nanofiber reinforced soybean protein isolate composite film. J Appl Polym Sci 110:641–646CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Czaja WK, Young DJ, Kawecki M, Brown RM (2007) The future prospects of microbial cellulose in biomedical applications. Biomacromolecules 8:1–12PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. English B, Chow P, Bajwa DS (1997) Processing into composites. In: Rowell MR, Young RA, Rowell JK (eds) Paper and composites from agro-based resources. CRC Lewis Publishers, New York, pp 269–297Google Scholar
  8. Fengel D, Wegener G (1989) Wood: Chemistry Ultrastructure Reactions. Walter de Gruyter, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  9. Hans JS, Rowell JS (1997) Chemical composition of fibers. In: Rowell MR, Young RA, Rowell JK (eds) Paper and composites from agro-based resources. CRC Lewis Publishers, New York, pp 83–134Google Scholar
  10. Henriksson M, Henriksson G, Berglund LA, Lindström T (2007) An environmentally friendly method for enzyme-assisted preparation of microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) nanofibers. Eur Polym J 43:3434–3441CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Iwamoto S, Nakagaito AN, Yano H, Nogi M (2005) Optically transparent composites reinforced with plant fibers- based nanofibers. Appl Phys 81:1109–1112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Iwamoto S, Abe K, Yano H (2008) The effect of hemicelluloses on wood pulp nanofibrillation and nanofiber network characteristics. Biomacromolecules 9:1022–1026PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Iwatake A, Nogi M, Yano H (2008) Cellulose nanofiber-reinforced polylactic acid. Compos Sci Technol 68:2103–2106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Kim C-W, Kim D-S, Kang S-Y, Marquez M, Joo YL (2006) Structural studies of electrospun cellulose nanofibers. Polymer 47:5097–5107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Klemm D, Schumann D, Udhardt U, Marsch S (2001) Bacterial synthesized cellulose–artificial blood vessels for microsurgery. Prog Polym Sci 26:1561–1603CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Klemm D, Heublein B, Fink H-P, Bohn A (2005) Cellulose: fascinating biopolymer and sustainable raw material. Angew Chem Int Ed 44:3358–3393CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Kulpinski P (2005) Cellulose nanofibers prepared by the N-Methylmorpholine-N-oxide method. J Appl Polym Sci 98:1855–1859CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Lönnberg H, Fogelström L, Samir S, Berglund L, Malmström E, Hult A (2008) Surface grafting of microfibrillated cellulose with poly(ε-caprolactone). Synthesis and characterization. Eur Polym J 44:2991–2997CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. López-Rubio A, Lagaron JM, Ankerforsx T, Lindström T, Nordqvist D, Mattozzi A, Hedenqvist MS (2007) Enhanced film forming and film properties of amylopectin using micro-fibrillated cellulose. Carbohydr Polym 68:718–727CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Nakagaito AN, Yano H (2004) Novel high-strength biocomposites based on microfibrillated cellulose having nano-order-unit web-like network structure. Appl Phys A Mater Sci Process 80:155–159Google Scholar
  21. Pääkkö M, Ankerfors M, Kosonen H, Nykänen A, Ahola S, Österberg M, Ruokolainen J, Laine J, Larsson PT, Ikkala O, Lindström T (2007) Cellulose nanopaper structure of high toughness. Biomacromolecules 8:1934–1941PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Rials TG, Wolcott MP (1997) Physical and mechanical properties of Agro-based fibers. In: Rowell MR, Young RA, Rowell JK (eds) Paper and composites from agro-based resources. CRC Lewis Publishers, New York, pp 63–79Google Scholar
  23. Samir MA, Alloin F, Dufresne A (2005) Review of recent research into cellulosic whiskers, their properties and their application in nanocomposites field. Biomacromolecules 6:612–626CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Shimazaki Y, Miyazaki Y, Takezawa Y, Nogi M, Abe K, Ifuku S, Yano H (2007) Excellent thermal conductivity of transparent cellulose nanofiber/epoxy resin nanocomposites. Biomacromolecules 8:2976–2978PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Subramanian R, Knononov A, Kang T, Paltakari J, Paulapura H (2008) Structure and properties of some natural cellulosic fibrils. Bioresources 3:192–203Google Scholar
  26. Svagan AJ, Samir MA, Berglund LA (2007) Biomimetic polysaccharide nanocomposites of high cellulose content and high toughness. Biomacromolecules 8:2556–2563PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Taniguchi T, Okamura K (1998) New films produced from microfibrillated natural fibres. Polym Int 47:291–294CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Turbak AF, Snyder FW, Sandberg KR (1983) Microfibrillated cellulose, a new cellulose product: properties, uses, and commercial potential. J Appl Polym Sci: Appl Polym Symp, 37 Proc. Cellul. Conf., 9th, 1982, Part 2, 815–827Google Scholar
  29. Wise LE, Murphy M, D’Addieco AA (1946) Chlorite holocellulose, its fractionation and bearing on summative wood analysis and on studies on hemicellulose. Paper Trade J 122:35–43Google Scholar
  30. Yano H, Sugiyama J, Nakagaito AN, Nogi M, Matsuura T, Hikita M, Handa K (2005) The effect of hemicelluloses on wood pulp nanofibrillation and nanofiber network characteristics. Adv Mater 17:153–155CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Young RA (1997) Processing of agro-based resources into pulp and paper. In: Rowell MR, Young RA, Rowell JK (eds) Paper and composites from agro-based resources. CRC Lewis Publishers, New York, pp 137–245Google Scholar
  32. Zhao H-P, Feng X-Q, Gao H (2007) Ultrasonic technique for extracting nanofibers from natural materials. Appl Phys Lett 90:073112CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mohammad L. Hassan
    • 1
    • 2
  • Aji P. Mathew
    • 3
  • Enas A. Hassan
    • 1
  • Nahla A. El-Wakil
    • 1
  • Kristiina Oksman
    • 3
    Email author
  1. 1.Cellulose and Paper DepartmentNational Research Center, DokkiCairoEgypt
  2. 2.Center of Excellence for Advanced Sciences, Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology GroupNational Research Center, DokkiCairoEgypt
  3. 3.Division of Manufacturing and Design of Wood and BionanocompositesLuleå University of TechnologyLuleåSweden

Personalised recommendations