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Wood Science and Technology

, Volume 44, Issue 3, pp 389–398 | Cite as

Knots in trees: strain distribution in a naturally optimised structure

  • Christoph Buksnowitz
  • Christoph Hackspiel
  • Karin Hofstetter
  • Ulrich Müller
  • Wolfgang Gindl
  • Alfred Teischinger
  • Johannes Konnerth
Original

Abstract

Electronic speckle pattern interferometry was applied to directly measure the distribution of longitudinal, tangential, and shear strains in small boards of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) exposed to tensile load in longitudinal direction. A sample with a central intergrown knot and one with an equivalent loose knot were compared with reference samples made of clear wood with an artificial central circular or square hole, respectively. The observed measurements were compared with a finite element (FE) simulation. The FE model was based on a geometric model to quantify the local fibre orientation and a micromechanical model to estimate elastic constants of clear wood and knot tissue. Both the measurements and simulation clearly illustrate a rather homogenous strain distribution around the intergrown knot. In comparison, the natural optimisation of dispersing strain peaks is less efficient in the case of loose knots. The artificial circular and square holes in samples with parallel fibre orientation lead to high gradients in the strain field and peak values in vicinity of the disturbance.

Keywords

Shear Strain Strain Distribution Parallel Fibre Electronic Speckle Pattern Interferometry Clear Wood 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Christoph Buksnowitz
    • 1
  • Christoph Hackspiel
    • 3
  • Karin Hofstetter
    • 3
  • Ulrich Müller
    • 2
  • Wolfgang Gindl
    • 1
  • Alfred Teischinger
    • 1
  • Johannes Konnerth
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Material Sciences and Process Engineering, Institute of Wood Science and TechnologyUniversity of Natural Resources and Applied Life SciencesViennaAustria
  2. 2.Kompetenzzentrum Holz GmbHLinzAustria
  3. 3.Institute for Mechanics of Materials and StructuresVienna University of TechnologyViennaAustria

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