Effect of the addition of Acacia mangium bark on thermosetting of phenol–formaldehyde resin
- 169 Downloads
The effect of addition of Acacia mangium bark powder on the thermosetting processes of two commercial phenol resins, PF-A and PF-B, was examined by bond strength test, torsional braid analysis, and differential scanning calorimetry. When the bark powder was added to PF-A, the bond strength of plywood pressed at 110°C increased and was comparable to that of plywood pressed at 120 and 130°C. However, when the bark powder was added to PF-B, the bond strength of plywood pressed at 110°C was still lower than that of plywood pressed at 120 and 130°C. The relative rigidity and loss tangent of PF-A cured with the bark powder obtained by heating at 100°C were comparable to those at 120 and 140°C, and the reaction enthalpy was increased by bark powder addition. In contrast, chemical reactions for cured PF-B were not enhanced by bark powder addition.
KeywordsDifferential Scanning Calorimetry Bark Bond Strength Differential Scanning Calorimetry Curve Condensed Tannin
We express our sincere gratitude to Koshii & Co. Ltd. for providing the A. mangium bark powder. We also thank Professor Tsuda, Asahikawa National College of Technology, for his support during the NMR measurements and Mr. Yoshida, Hokkaido Industrial Research Institute, for his support during the DSC measurements.
- Hamada R, Ikeda S, Satake Y (1969) Utilization of wood bark for plywood adhesive. I. Effect of addition of bark of Acacia mollissima on the properties of phenol formaldehyde resin (in Japanese). Mokuzai Gakkaishi 15:165–170Google Scholar
- JIS K 6833 (1994) General testing methods for adhesives. Japanese Standards Association (JSA), TokyoGoogle Scholar
- Lippmaa H, Samoson A (1988) Solid-state 13C NMR study of cured resorcinol-formaldehyde resins. J Adhes Soc Jpn 24:300–306Google Scholar
- McCoy JPA (1918) US Patent 1269627Google Scholar
- Ogawa S, Susanti CME, Yano H (2002) Direct utilization of Acacia mangium bark as water proof adhesives. In: Proceedings of the fourth international wood science symposium, Serpong, Indonesia, pp 182–187Google Scholar
- Philips EK, Detlefsen WD, Carlson FE (1991) Techniques for bonding high moisture content wood in oriented strand board with phenol–formaldehyde resin. In: Maloney TM (ed) Proceedings, 25th international particleboard/composite materials symposium, Washington, pp 231–248Google Scholar
- Pizzi A (1983) Tannin-based wood adhesives. In: Pizzi A (ed) Wood adhesives chemistry and technology. Marcel Dekker, New York, pp 177–246Google Scholar
- Yano H, Ogawa S, Kawai S, Inai A, Homma Y, Yamauchi H, Nasu H, Yamazaki M, Yada G (2005) Manufacturing and utilization for wood adhesives of Acacia mangium bark powder (in Japanese). Mokuzai-kogyo 60:478–482Google Scholar
- Yazaki Y, Collins PJ (1998) A novel tannin extraction from radiata pine bark for high quality wood adhesives. In: Proceedings of the fourth Pacific rim bio-based composites symposium, Bogor, Indonesia, pp 19–26Google Scholar
- Yazaki Y, Morita S, Collins PJ (1998) Potential use of Acacia mangium bark for waterproof wood adhesives. In: Proceedings of the fourth Pacific rim bio-based composites symposium, Bogor, Indonesia, pp 36–44Google Scholar