Wood Science and Technology

, Volume 41, Issue 5, pp 385–400 | Cite as

Bending characteristics of bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens) with respect to its fiber–foam composite structure

  • Eiichi ObatayaEmail author
  • Peter Kitin
  • Hidefumi Yamauchi


The bending properties of split bamboo culm were compared with those of spruce and beech wood specimens. The bamboo allowed large flexural deformation since its outer layer retains the tensile stress while the softer inner layer undergoes large compressive deformation. The results suggested that the combination of the fiber-rich outer part and the compressible inner part was responsible for the flexural ductility of split bamboo. To clarify the compressible nature of the inner part of bamboo, the longitudinal surfaces of the bamboo and wood specimens were microscopically observed before and after a large longitudinal compression. Although the wood specimens showed serious and localized buckling, the inner part of the bamboo specimens showed no such visible buckling. In the latter case, the foam-like parenchyma cells absorbed the large compressive deformation by their microscopic buckling and simultaneously, the alignment of sclerenchyma fibers was maintained by the surrounding parenchyma matrix. The flexural elasticity of the bamboo was compared to that of the wood in respect of remaining strain during cyclic bending tests. No clear difference was recognized between their remaining strains. This fact indicated that the bamboo was not so flexible elastically, although its fiber–foam combination and intelligent fiber distribution improve flexural ductility.


Parenchyma Cell Wood Specimen Localize Buckling Bamboo Fiber Longitudinal Compression 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Abd Latif M (1993) Effects of age and height on the machining properties of Malaysian bamboo. J Trop For Sci 5:528–535Google Scholar
  2. Chuma S, Hirohashi M, Ohgama T, Kasahara Y (1990) Composite structure and tensile properties of mousou bamboo (in Japanese). Zairyou (J Soc Mater Sci Jpn) 39:847–851Google Scholar
  3. Imai T, Majima S, Fujita M, Saiki H (1995) Cellular structures in culm internodes of three Phyllostachys species - Madake, Hachiku and Mosochiku. Bull Kyoto Univ For 67:147–157Google Scholar
  4. Inokuchi Y (2003) Utilization of bamboo from the point of view of mechanical properties (in Japanese). Wood Industry 58:157–164Google Scholar
  5. Inokuchi Y, Fushitani M, Chuma S, Ozawa M, Kubo T, Sato K (1997) Effects of volume fraction of bundle sheath on the vibrational properties of bamboo. Mokuzai Gakkaishi 43:391–398Google Scholar
  6. Inokuchi Y, Fushitani M, Kubo T, Sato K (1999) Effects of water extractives on the moisture-content dependence of vibrational properties of bamboo. Mokuzai Gakkaishi 45:77–84Google Scholar
  7. Inokuchi Y, Fushitani M, Kubo T, Sato K (2002) Effect of volume fraction of bundle sheath and water extractives on bending creep behavior of bamboo under changing moisture condition. Mokuzai Gakkaishi 48:413–424Google Scholar
  8. Kitazawa K, Takahama M, Ogawa H (2003) Possibility of nosing of bamboo. J Jpn Soc Technol Plast 44:63–65Google Scholar
  9. Kitin P, Fujii T, Abe H, Funada R (2004) Anatomy of the vessel network within and between tree rings of Fraxinus lanuginosa (Oleaceae). Am J Bot 91:779–788Google Scholar
  10. Kiyooka T (2001) Bamboo materials (in Japanese). Management-sha, Tokyo, p 173 (ISBN 4-8378-0405-5)Google Scholar
  11. Liese W (1998) The anatomy of bamboo culms. International network for bamboo and ratans (INBAR), Beijing, Tech rep no.18Google Scholar
  12. Liese W, Weiner G (1996) Ageing of bamboo culms. Wood Sci Technol 30:77–89CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Ma L, Kawai S, Sasaki H (1999) Manufacture of bamboo-cement composite VI: effect of silica fume addition and heat-treatment on properties of hot-pressed boards. Mokuzai Gakkaishi 45:25–33Google Scholar
  14. Matsumoto K, Yamauchi H, Yamada H, Yoshida H (2001) Manufacture and properties of fiberboard made from moso bamboo. Mokuzai Gakkaishi 47:111–119Google Scholar
  15. Mori M (1984) An example of plain board processing of bamboo by microwave heating. Bamboo J 2:47–49Google Scholar
  16. Murphy R, Sulaiman O, Alvin KL (1997) Ultrastructural aspects of cell wall organization in bamboos. In: Chapman G (ed) The bamboos. Linnaean Society, London, pp 305–312Google Scholar
  17. Murphy RJ, Alvin KL (1997) Fibre maturation in the bamboo Gigantochloa scortechinii. IAWA Bull 18:147–156Google Scholar
  18. Nugroho N, Ando N (2000) Development of structural composite products made from bamboo I: fundamental properties of bamboo zephyr board. J Wood Sci 46:68–74CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Okubo K, Fujii T, Yamamoto Y (2004) Development of bamboo-based polymer composites and their mechanical properties. Composites Part A 35:377–383CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Parameswaran N, Liese W (1976) On the fine structure of bamboo fibres. Wood Sci Technol 10:231–246Google Scholar
  21. Parameswaran N, Liese W (1980) Ultrastructural aspects of bamboo cells. Cellulose Chem Technol 14:587–609Google Scholar
  22. Shito T, Okubo K, Fujii T (2002) Development and mechanical properties of eco-composites using bamboo fiber. Bamboo J 19:15–23Google Scholar
  23. Takagi H, Ichihara Y (2004) Effect of fiber length on mechanical properties of “green” composites using a starch-based resin and short bamboo fibers. JMSE Int J Ser A 47(4):551–555CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Tung NH, Yamamoto H, Matsuoka T, Fujii T (2004) Effect of surface treatment on interfacial strength between bamboo fiber and PP resin. JMSE Int J Ser A 47(4):561–565CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Yaoa W, Lib Z (2003) Flexural behavior of bamboo-fiber-reinforced mortar laminates. Cem Concr Res 33:15–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Yonekura M (1992) Development on expansive technique of bamboo (Mosochiku). Bamboo J 10:67–74Google Scholar
  27. Zhang M (1994) Relationship between tensile strength of natural fibers and their sizes. Wood Res Tech Notes 30:32–39Google Scholar
  28. Zhang M (1997) The study of high performance bio-based composite board manufactured from lignocellulosic materials. Wood Res Tech Notes 33:33–70Google Scholar
  29. Zhang J, Wang R, Ma N, Zhang W (1995) Fibre morphology and main physical and chemical properties of some bamboo wood of Phyllostachys. For Res 8:54–61Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Eiichi Obataya
    • 1
    Email author
  • Peter Kitin
    • 2
  • Hidefumi Yamauchi
    • 2
  1. 1.Graduate School of Life and Environmental SciencesUniversity of TsukubaIbarakiJapan
  2. 2.Institute of Wood TechnologyAkita Prefectural UniversityNoshiroJapan

Personalised recommendations