Towards Optimal Degree Distributions for Left-Perfect Matchings in Random Bipartite Graphs
Consider a random bipartite multigraph G with n left nodes and m ≥ n≥2 right nodes. Each left node x has d x ≥1 random right neighbors. The average left degree Δ is fixed, Δ≥2. We ask whether for the probability that G has a left-perfect matching it is advantageous not to fix d x for each left node x but rather choose it at random according to some (cleverly chosen) distribution. We show the following, provided that the degrees of the left nodes are independent: If Δ is an integer, then it is optimal to use a fixed degree of Δ for all left nodes. If Δ is non-integral, then an optimal degree-distribution has the property that each left node x has two possible degrees, ⌊Δ⌋ and ⌈Δ⌉, with probability p x and 1−p x , respectively, where p x is from the closed interval [0,1] and the average over all p x equals ⌈Δ⌉−Δ. Furthermore, if c=n/m and Δ>2 are constant, then each distribution of the left degrees that meets the conditions above determines the same threshold c ∗(Δ) that has the following property as n goes to infinity: If c < c ∗(Δ) then asymptotically almost surely there exists a left-perfect matching. If c>c ∗(Δ) then asymptotically almost surely there exists no left-perfect matching. The threshold c ∗(Δ) is the same as the known threshold for offline k-ary cuckoo hashing for integral or non-integral k=Δ.
KeywordsBipartite graph Matching Random graph Degree distribution Optimization Cuckoo hashing
Mathematics Subject Classification201005C70 05C80 60B20 G.2.2 F.2.2
The authors would like to thank a reviewer of the conference version of this article for pointing out a gap in an earlier version of the proof of Lemma 3. We are also grateful to the reviewers of the present article for helpful remarks.
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