Theory of Computing Systems

, Volume 38, Issue 2, pp 229–248 | Cite as

Space Efficient Hash Tables with Worst Case Constant Access Time

  • Dimitris Fotakis
  • Rasmus Pagh
  • Peter Sanders
  • Paul Spirakis


We generalize Cuckoo Hashing to d-ary Cuckoo Hashing and show how this yields a simple hash table data structure that stores n elements in (1 + ε)n memory cells, for any constant ε > 0. Assuming uniform hashing, accessing or deleting table entries takes at most d=O (ln (1/ε)) probes and the expected amortized insertion time is constant. This is the first dictionary that has worst case constant access time and expected constant update time, works with (1 + ε)n space, and supports satellite information. Experiments indicate that d = 4 probes suffice for ε ≈ 0.03. We also describe variants of the data structure that allow the use of hash functions that can be evaluated in constant time.


Data Structure Constant Time Computational Mathematic Hash Function Memory Cell 
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Copyright information

© Springer 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Information and Communication Systems Engineering, University of the Aegean, 83200 Karlovasi, Samos Greece
  2. 2.IT University of Copenhagen, DK1017 Copenhagen K Denmark
  3. 3.Fakultat fur Informatik, Universitat Karlsruhe, 76128 Karlsruhe Germany
  4. 4.Computer Technology Institute, 26110 PatrasGreece

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