Characterization of Matrix-Induced Osteogenesis in Rat Calvarial Bone Defects: II. Origins of Bone-Forming Cells
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Two experimental models that separated demineralized bone matrix (DBM) implants from the host bone were utilized to identify the origins of bone-forming cells in the repair of calvarial defects in rats. Rat DBM, Guanadine-HCl (Gdn-HCl) extracted insoluble residue of DBM, and Gdn-HCl extracted insoluble DBM to which the dialyzed Gdn-HCl extract was added back, were implanted in the two models which prevented cells of the adjacent host bone from participating in the repair. In addition, cells in the dura and in the subcutaneous tissue overlying the calvarial defect were locally labeled with 3H-thymidine to identify the origins of those cells that were stimulated to divide and differentiate to osteoblasts. Histological studies of the temporal events that occurred during the healing process in these defect models, combined with 3H-thymidine labeling demonstrated that the osteoblasts induced by DBM were initially derived from undifferentiated mesenchymal stem cells of the dura and later augmented by cells in the overlying connective tissue covering the defect, and not from cells in the cranial bone surrounding the circular defect. The cells of both dura and subcutaneous tissue were stimulated to proliferate and differentiate principally to osteoblasts and to a very much lesser extent to chondroblasts by DBM and by reconstituted components of DBM after Gdn-HCl extraction. Gdn-HCl-extracted insoluble DBM failed to induce bone or cartilage. These results indicate that the cytokines or other factors present in DBM are required to induce bone-forming cells derived from the dura and the overlying connective tissue for the repair of the calvarial defect.
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