Low Bone Density with Normal Bone Turnover in Ovariectomized and Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats
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Diabetes and estrogen deficit are known causes of osteopenia, diabetes being associated with a low bone turnover and estrogen deficit with a high bone turnover. In the present work, we studied the effect of combined ovariectomy and diabetes on bone mineral content (BMC) and bone mineral density (BMD) and several bone markers in the rat. Four groups of rats were studied: control (C), ovariectomized (O), diabetic (D), and ovariectomized and diabetic (DO). Twelve weeks after starting the experiments, BMC and BMD of the first six lumbar vertebrae were measured; a bone formation marker (BGP) and a bone resorption marker (free collagen cross-links, PYD) were also analyzed. Diabetic rats showed diminished gain in bone mass, BMC (D: 0.417 ± 0.028 g, DO: 0.422 ± 0.020 g) and BMDs (D: 0.171 ± 0.006 g/cm2, DO: 0.174 ± 0.006 g/cm2) both being significantly (P < 0.001) lower than those of control (C: BMC 0.727 ± 0.024 g and BMD 0.258 ± 0.004 g/cm2) and ovariectomized (O: BMC 0.640 ± 0.044 g and BMD 0.240 ± 0.009 g/cm2) groups. Moreover, the BMC and BMD of the C group were significantly (P < 0.05) higher than that of the O group. BGP and PYD levels were significantly (P < 0.01) higher in the O group (BGP: 138.2 ± 16.8 ng/ml, PYD: 270.2 ± 17.8 nM/mM) than those found in the control rats (BGP: 44.7 ± 4.8 ng/ml, PYD: 165.6 ± 12.5 nM/mM); the D group showed significantly (P < 0.01) lower values (BGP: 27.4 ± 14.6 ng/ml, PYD: 55.0 ± 7.4 nM/mM) than those of the control group. The DO group showed similar levels (BGP: 43.4 ± 5.1 ng/ml, PYD: 146.7 ± 14.6 nM/mM) to those found in the C group. Although bone marker levels in the O and D groups were in accordance with those expected in these situations, in the DO group the corresponding levels are apparently ``normal.'' Also, the decrease of gain in bone mass observed after combining estrogen deficit and diabetes (DO group) did not seem to be more marked than that caused by diabetes alone.
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