Associations of Early Premenopausal Fractures with Subsequent Fractures Vary by Sites and Mechanisms of Fractures
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In a retrospective population-based study we assessed whether and how self-reported former fractures sustained at the ages of 20–34 are associated with subsequent fractures sustained at the ages of 35–57. The 12,162 women who responded to fracture questions of the baseline postal enquiry (in 1989) of the Kuopio Osteoporosis Study, Finland formed the study population. They reported 589 former and 2092 subsequent fractures. The hazard ratio (HR), with 95% confidence interval (CI), of a subsequent fracture was 1.9 (1.6–2.3) in women with the history of a former fracture compared with women without such a history. A former low-energy wrist fracture was related to subsequent low-energy wrist [HR = 3.7 (2.0–6.8)] and high-energy nonwrist [HR = 2.4 (1.3–4.4)] fractures, whereas former high-energy nonwrist fractures were related only to subsequent high-energy nonwrist [HR = 2.8 (1.9–4.1)] but not to low-energy wrist [HR = 0.7 (0.3–1.8)] fractures. The analysis of bone mineral density (BMD) data of a subsample of premenopausal women who underwent dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) during 1989–91 revealed that those with a wrist fracture due to a fall on the same level at the age of 20–34 recorded 6.5% lower spinal (P= 0.140) and 10.5% lower femoral (P= 0.026) BMD than nonfractured women, whereas the corresponding differences for women with a former nonwrist fracture due to high-energy trauma were −1.8% (P= 0.721) and −2.4% (P= 0.616), respectively.
Our results suggest that an early premenopausal, low-energy wrist fracture is an indicator of low peak BMD which predisposes to subsequent fractures in general, whereas early high-energy fractures are mainly indicators of other and more specific extraskeletal factors which mainly predispose to same types of subsequent fractures only.
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