A Human Homolog of the 150 kD Avian Osteoclast Membrane Antigen Related to Superoxide Dismutase and Essential for Bone Resorption is Induced by Developmental Agents and Opposed by Estrogen in FLG 29.1 Cells
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Osteoclast development from hematopoietic bone marrow precursors is associated with the expression of various enzymes, receptors, adhesion molecules, and other specialized components. Among these is a novel 150 kD superoxide dismutase-related membrane glycoprotein, originally identified by its reaction with the anti-osteoclast monoclonal antibody 121F. This antigen is uniquely restricted to osteoclasts in bone, universally present on osteoclasts from multiple species, induced during osteoclast differentiation in vitro and in ovo, and required at high levels for avian osteoclastic bone pit resorption. Expression of a comparable human antigen was investigated using human leukemic FLG 29.1 cells capable of differentiating towards an osteoclast-like phenotype. Phorbol ester, 1,25 (OH)2 vitamin D3, and osteoblast-derived soluble factors elicited dose and time-dependent inductions of this antigen as measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and immunocytochemical staining, coincident with their display of multiple other osteoclastic features. Synergistic interactions of these modulators led to further elevations in the ultimate expression levels of this antigen, although not to the full extent associated with in vivo-formed avian osteoclasts. The potent antiresorptive hormone 17β-estradiol, but not its inactive α isomer, partially suppressed the phorbol ester-induced elevation of the 121F antibody-reactive antigen in FLG 29.1 cells as it does in avian osteoclast-like cells. Characterization of the human antigen isolated from FLG 29.1 cells by 121F immunoaffinity purification demonstrated that this regulated membrane component was synthesized by these human cells, more abundant following their differentiation into osteoclast-like cells, and similar biochemically and immunologically to the 150 kD integral membrane glycoprotein previously described from avian osteoclasts. Therefore, this report is the first documentation that human osteoclast-like FLG 29.1 cells express, in a developmentally regulated fashion, a homolog of the specific 150 kD avian osteoclast surface antigen that is related to superoxide dismutase, a protective free radical scavenging enzyme and is essential for osteoclastic bone resorption.
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