Bone Turnover Markers in Men and Women with Impaired Fasting Glucose and Diabetes
Bone turnover markers (BTMs) are reduced in diabetes, but whether BTM changes occur in impaired fasting glucose (IFG) is unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate whether BTMs are altered in IFG and diabetes compared to normoglycaemia. For men and women (n = 2222) in the Geelong Osteoporosis Study, IFG was defined as fasting plasma glucose (FPG) 5.5–6.9 mmol/L and diabetes as FPG ≥ 7.0 mmol/L, use of antihyperglycemic medication and/or self-report. Serum C-terminal telopeptide (CTx) and procollagen type 1 N-terminal propeptide (P1NP) were measured. After natural log transformation to normalise the data, multivariable regression was used to examine the relationship between glycaemia status and bone turnover markers (BTMs), before and after adjusting for other confounders. There were 643 men and 682 women with normoglycaemia, 355 men and 391 women with IFG and 97 men and 54 women with diabetes. Men with IFG or diabetes had lower adjusted ln(CTx) and ln(P1NP) compared to normoglycaemia (all p < 0.05). Women with IFG or diabetes had lower adjusted ln(CTx) and ln(P1NP) (all p < 0.05) except for ln(P1NP) when comparing diabetes with normoglycaemia, which showed a trend for lower ln(P1NP) (p = 0.053). In both sexes, an age * glycaemia interaction term indicated between-group differences in BTMs diminished with increasing age. No other confounders were identified. Bone turnover was lower in those with either IFG or diabetes compared to normoglycaemia.
KeywordsDiabetes mellitus Impaired fasting glucose Bone turnover markers
The Geelong Osteoporosis Study was supported by the Victorian Health Promotion Foundation, National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC), Australia (Projects 251638 and 628582) and the Geelong Regional Medical Foundation; however, the funding bodies played no part in either the design or conduct of the study, the collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data or the preparation or review of the paper. LFFA and MAS are supported by Postgraduate Scholarships from Deakin University and KLH-K is supported by an Alfred Deakin Postdoctoral Research Fellowship. LLFA, KLH-K, MAS, MAK and JAP have no other conflict of interest to declare.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of interest
Kara L. Holloway-Kew, Lelia L. F. De Abreu, Mark A. Kotowicz, Muhammad A. Sajjad, and Julie A. Pasco have no conflicts of interest.
Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent
All subjects signed informed consent. Ethical approval was obtained from the Barwon Health, Human Research Ethics Committee (ID 92/01 and ID 00/56).
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