Coexistence of Pre-sarcopenia and Metabolic Syndrome in Arab Men
The present single-center observational study determined the prevalence and coexistence of sarcopenia, pre-sarcopenia, and metabolic syndrome (MetS) among apparently healthy Arab men and whether having both conditions present a unique cardiometabolic profile that is distinct than having the conditions separately.
A total of 471 out of 530 Arab men aged 20–77 years old were included after screening for the presence of pre-sarcopenia (ALM/ht2 < 7.26 kg/m2), sarcopenia (presence of both low muscle mass and low function), and MetS. MetS screening was done using the definition by the NCEP-ATP III. Based on the screening results, the participants were classified as control (normal) group (N = 328), MetS only (N = 73), pre-sarcopenia only (N = 64), and MetS + pre-sarcopenia (N = 6).
Pre-sarcopenia without MetS was observed in 64 participants (13.6%), while MetS without pre-sarcopenia was observed in 73 participants (15.5%). MetS + pre-sarcopenia was observed only in 6 participants (1.3%). None of the participants had sarcopenia. Age- and BMI-adjusted comparisons showed that those with MetS + pre-sarcopenia had the highest diastolic blood pressure and triglyceride levels as compared to all groups (p values < 0.001). MetS + pre-sarcopenia group also had the highest levels of glucose and the lowest lean arms–legs/BMI ratio than control and pre-sarcopenia groups (p values < 0.001 and 0.005, respectively).
The prevalence of pre-sarcopenia + MetS is low among young adult Arab men, but shows a unique cardiometabolic profile that is worse than those having only one of the conditions. Further investigations should be done among Arab women and the elderly.
KeywordsBody composition Bone mineral density Metabolic syndrome Sarcopenia
The authors thank all participants, the Cardiovascular Laboratory, and all research assistants. Blood samples were collected by Mr. Hamza Saber and Mr. Marwan Alharbi, and DXA scan was conducted by Mr. Abdulrahman Almajrashi.
SMY, SAA, DA, KSA, MNKK, MSA, JYR, NMA. SMY, SAA, and NMA conceptualized the study. SAA secured the funding and ethical approval. SMY and SS drafted the manuscript. DA, KSA, MSA, and NMA contributed in the data collection, interpretation, and writing of the manuscript. SS and JYR performed the critical review and revision of the manuscript. MNKK performed data analysis and contributed in the drafting of the manuscript. All authors have read and approved the final version of the manuscript.
Availability of Data and Materials
Data are available from the corresponding author on reasonable request.
This research project was supported by a grant from the Research Centre for the Sports Science and Physical Activity, Deanship of Scientific Research at KSU.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of interest
Sobhy M. Yakout, Shaea A. Alkahtani, Dara Al‑Disi, Khalid S. Aljaloud, Malak Nawaz Khan Khattak, Majed S. Alokail, Jean‑Yves Reginster, Shaun Sabico, Nasser M. Al‑Daghri declare that they have no conflict of interest.
Ethical approval was obtained from the ethics committee of KSU, Riyadh, KSA (IRB No. E-16-1785). All participants who expressed their interest in the study signed a consent prior to inclusion.
Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent
The study was approved by the KSU Institutional Review Board (IRB No. E-16-1785). Written consent was obtained from all patients who were included in the study.
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