Circulating Levels of Inflammation and the Effect on Exercise-Related Changes in Bone Mass, Structure and Strength in Middle-Aged and Older Men
Chronic, low-grade systematic inflammation has been associated with bone loss and increased fracture risk. We previously reported that exercise improved femoral neck bone mineral density (BMD), geometry and strength and lumbar spine trabecular BMD in middle-aged and older men, but had no effect on markers of inflammation. The aim of this study was to examine the association between basal inflammatory status and the adaptive skeletal responses to exercise. Secondary analysis was completed on 91 men aged 50–79 years who participated in an 18-month program of progressive resistance training plus weight-bearing impact exercise (3 day/week) with and without additional calcium–vitamin D3. Markers of inflammation (serum hs-CRP, TNF-α and IL-6) and DXA and QCT-derived BMD, bone structure and strength at the lumbar spine and proximal femur were measured at baseline and 18 months. Multiple regression was used to assess associations between skeletal changes and both baseline levels of individual inflammatory markers and a composite inflammatory index derived from the number of markers categorized into the highest tertile. Baseline serum hs-CRP, TNFα and IL-6 and the composite inflammatory index score were not associated with skeletal changes at any site after adjusting for age, change in lean mass, disease(s)/medication use and adherence to the exercise intervention. In conclusion, this study indicates that basal inflammatory status does not influence the osteogenic response to exercise training in healthy middle-aged and older men.
KeywordsInflammation Exercise Bone mineral density Bone strength Men
This study was financially supported by a grant from the Australian Research Council (ARC) Linkage Scheme. R.M.D. was supported by a National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) Career Development Award (ID 425849). We thank the City of Greater Geelong and Ocean View Health Club for their generous provision of the gymnasium facilities used throughout the study.
R.M.D and C.A.N designed the study; R.M.D is guarantor; S.K conducted the research; J.M.P completed the cytokines analysis; J.D.V, R.L.D and R.M.D wrote the manuscript; J.D.V and R.L.D were responsible for the statistical analysis of the data. All authors revised the paper critically for intellectual content and approved the final version. All authors agree to be accountable for the work and to ensure that any questions relating to the accuracy and integrity of the paper are investigated and properly resolved.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of interest
Jack Dalla Via, Rachel L. Duckham, Jonathan M. Peake, Sonja Kukuljan, Caryl A. Nowson and Robin M. Daly have any conflicts of interest to declare.
Human and Animal Rights
Ethical Approval was obtained from the Deakin University Human Ethics Committee and Barwon Health Human Research Ethics Committee. All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study prior to participation.
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