Bone Mass Development in Childhood and Its Association with Physical Activity and Vitamin D Levels. The CHAMPS-Study DK
This longitudinal study examined associations of bone mass with physical activity and vitamin D level over more than 6 years through puberty. A total of 663 participants (320 boys) with mean age 9.6 years at baseline (10–17 years at follow-up), underwent dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, anthropometry and blood samples for vitamin D at least twice during the study period (with three possible time-points). Physical activity was assessed using accelerometers at follow-up. A positive association was found between percent time spent at vigorous physical activity and total-body less head bone mineral content (β = 5.8, p = 0.002). The magnitude of this association increased with maturational development; thus physical activity may have a greater influence on bone mass in the more mature participants. The vitamin D levels were also positively associated with bone mass. A high degree of tracking was observed with changes in anthropometric Z scores predictive of deviation from tracking. No environmental factor predicted deviation from tracking.
KeywordsBone mass Puberty Tracking Physical activity Vitamin D Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry
We thank participants and schools for their participation in the Childhood Health Activity and Motor Performance School study. We gratefully acknowledge the team behind the CHAMPS-study DK consisting of numerous researchers and students participating in data collection and Mette Vogn Hviid for her contribution with the numerous DXA-scans as operator during the whole study period.
MSR, MH, AS, JOL, SH, NW and CM designed the research and interpreted the data. MSR, MH and JT contributed to collecting data and LL and NRJ contributed to laboratory analyses. MSR and NW analysed the data and MSR prepared the first draft of the paper. All authors revised the paper critically and approved the final version. All authors agree to be accountable for the work and to ensure that any questions relating to the accuracy and integrity of the paper are investigated and properly resolved.
The study was supported by the Danish foundation “Tryg-fonden”, the Region of Southern Denmark, Hospital of Southern Jutland and “Kirsten og Freddy Johansens Fond”.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of interest
Dr. Rønne reports grants and personal fees from The Danish foundation “Tryg-fonden”, personal fees from The Region of Southern Denmark, personal fees from Hospital of Southern Jutland, other from Kirsten og Freddy Johansens Fond, during the conduct of the study. Dr. Lylloff and Dr Jørgensen report grants from Kirsten and Freddy Johansens Foundation, during the conduct of the study. Dr. Heidemann, Dr Schou, Dr Tarp, Dr. Laursen, Dr. Husby, Dr. Wedderkopp, and Dr. Mølgaard have nothing to disclose.
Human Rights and Informed Consent
Children and parents received written information about the study together with verbal information at school meetings. Parents provided written informed consent before enrolment in the study. For all children participation was voluntary and consent could be withdrawn at any time. The CHAMPS-study DK was approved by the Regional Scientific Ethical Committee of Southern Denmark (Project ID: S2008-0047, S-20140105).
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