Calcified Tissue International

, Volume 103, Issue 2, pp 111–124 | Cite as

Alkaline Phosphatases in the Complex Chronic Kidney Disease-Mineral and Bone Disorders

  • Jordi BoverEmail author
  • Pablo Ureña
  • Armando Aguilar
  • Sandro Mazzaferro
  • Silvia Benito
  • Víctor López-Báez
  • Alejandra Ramos
  • Iara daSilva
  • Mario Cozzolino


Alkaline phosphatases (APs) remove the phosphate (dephosphorylation) needed in multiple metabolic processes (from many molecules such as proteins, nucleotides, or pyrophosphate). Therefore, APs are important for bone mineralization but paradoxically they can also be deleterious for other processes, such as vascular calcification and the increasingly known cross-talk between bone and vessels. A proper balance between beneficial and harmful activities is further complicated in the context of chronic kidney disease (CKD). In this narrative review, we will briefly update the complexity of the enzyme, including its different isoforms such as the bone-specific alkaline phosphatase or the most recently discovered B1x. We will also analyze the correlations and potential discrepancies with parathyroid hormone and bone turnover and, most importantly, the valuable recent associations of AP’s with cardiovascular disease and/or vascular calcification, and survival. Finally, a basic knowledge of the synthetic and degradation pathways of APs promises to open new therapeutic strategies for the treatment of the CKD-Mineral and Bone Disorder (CKD-MBD) in the near future, as well as for other processes such as sepsis, acute kidney injury, inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, metabolic syndrome or, in diabetes, cardiovascular complications. However, no studies have been done using APs as a primary therapeutic target for clinical outcomes, and therefore, AP’s levels cannot yet be used alone as an isolated primary target in the treatment of CKD-MBD. Nonetheless, its diagnostic and prognostic potential should be underlined.


Alkaline phosphatase Bone alkaline phosphatase CKD CKD-MBD Pyrophosphate Vascular calcification Survival 



Dr Jordi Bover belongs to the Spanish National Network of Kidney Research RedinRen (RD06/0016/0001 and RD12/0021/0033) and the Spanish National Biobank network RD09/0076/00064. Dr Jordi Bover also belongs to the Catalan Nephrology Research Group AGAUR 2009 SGR-1116 and collaborates with the Spanish Fundación Iñigo Alvarez de Toledo (FRIAT). We thank Mr. Ricardo Pellejero for his invaluable bibliographic assistance.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jordi Bover
    • 1
    Email author
  • Pablo Ureña
    • 2
  • Armando Aguilar
    • 1
  • Sandro Mazzaferro
    • 3
  • Silvia Benito
    • 1
  • Víctor López-Báez
    • 1
  • Alejandra Ramos
    • 1
  • Iara daSilva
    • 1
  • Mario Cozzolino
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Nephrology, Fundació PuigvertIIB Sant Pau, RedinRenBarcelonaSpain
  2. 2.Department of Nephrology and Dialysis, Clinique du Landy and Department of Renal Physiology, Necker HospitalUniversity of Paris DescartesParisFrance
  3. 3.Department of Cardiovascular, Respiratory, Nephrologic and Geriatric SciencesSapienza University of RomeRomeItaly
  4. 4.Laboratory of Experimental Nephrology, Renal Division,San Paolo HospitalDiSS University of MilanMilanItaly

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