Calcified Tissue International

, Volume 102, Issue 3, pp 358–367 | Cite as

Long-Term Intake of Green Tea Extract Causes Mal-Conformation of Trabecular Bone Microarchitecture in Growing Rats

  • Akira MinematsuEmail author
  • Yasue Nishii
  • Hidetaka Imagita
  • Susumu Sakata
Original Research


The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of green tea extract (GTE) intake on bone structural and physiological properties, such as bone mass, trabecular bone microarchitecture, cortical bone geometry, and bone mechanical strength, in growing rats. Four-week-old male Wistar rats were divided into the following four groups: standard diet feeding for 85 days (S-CON) or 170 days (L-CON), and GTE diet feeding for 85 days (S-GTE) or 170 days (L-GTE). At the end of the experiment, in addition to measurement of circulating bone formation/resorption markers, bone mass, trabecular bone microarchitecture, and cortical bone geometry were analyzed in the left femur, and bone mechanical strength of the right femur was measured. There was no difference in all bone parameters between the S-CON and S-GTE groups. On the other hand, the L-GTE group showed the decrease in some trabecular bone mass/microarchitecture parameters and no change in cortical bone mass/geometry parameters compared with the L-CON group, and consequently the reduction in bone weight corrected by body weight. There was no difference in bone formation/resorption markers and bone mechanical strength between the S-CON and S-GTE groups and also between the L-CON and L-GTE groups. However, serum leptin levels were significantly lower in the L-GTE group than in the L-CON group. Thus, the long-term GTE intake had negative effects on bone, especially trabecular bone loss and microarchitecture mal-conformation, in growing rats.


Green tea extract Trabecular bone microarchitecture Cortical bone geometry Bone mechanical strength Growing rats 



Body weight


Bone mineral content


Bone mineral density


Bone volume


Bone volume fraction


Cortical bone geometry


Connectivity density


Cortical bone area


Cortical bone thickness


Cortical bone volume

CV/(CV + MV)

Cortical bone fraction




Endocortical perimeter


Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay


Green tea extract


Green tea polyphenol


Medullary volume




Periosteal perimeter


Region of interest


Trabecular number


Trabecular separation


Trabecular thickness


Tissue mineral density


Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-5b


Tissue volume


Volume BMD, BMC/TV



This study was supported in part by a grant to A.M. from the Kao Research Council for the Study of Health Science (A-51002).

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

Akira Minematsu, Yasue Nishii, Hidetaka Imagita, and Susumu Sakata declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent

This study was approved by the Committee of Research Facilities of Laboratory Animal Science in the Kio University and was performed according to the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals published by the US National Institutes of Health (NIH Publication No. 85-23, revised in 1996), especially based on the principles of 3R (Reduction, Replacement and Refinement).


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Akira Minematsu
    • 1
    Email author
  • Yasue Nishii
    • 1
  • Hidetaka Imagita
    • 1
  • Susumu Sakata
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Physical Therapy, Faculty of Health ScienceKio UniversityKitakatsuragi-gunJapan
  2. 2.Department of PhysiologyNara Medical UniversityKashiharaJapan

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