Reduced Bone Material Strength is Associated with Increased Risk and Severity of Osteoporotic Fractures. An Impact Microindentation Study
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The aim of the study was to test, whether bone material strength differs between different subtypes of osteoporotic fracture and assess whether it relates to vertebral fracture severity. Cortical bone material strength index (BMSi) was measured by impact microindentation in 66 women with osteoporotic fracture and 66 age- and sex-matched controls without fracture. Bone mineral density (BMD) and bone turnover markers were also assessed. Vertebral fracture severity was graded by semiquantitative (SQ) grading. Receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curves were used to examine the ability of BMSi to discriminate fractures. Subjects with osteoporotic fractures exhibited lower BMSi than controls (71.5 ± 7.3 vs. 76.4 ± 6.2, p < 0.001). After adjusting for age and hip BMD, a significant negative correlation was seen between BMSi and vertebral fracture severity (r 2 = 0.19, p = 0.007). A decrease of one standard deviation (SD) in BMSi was associated with increased risk of fracture (OR 2.62; 95% CI 1.35, 5.10, p = 0.004). ROC curve areas under the curve (AUC) for BMSi in subjects with vertebral fracture (VF), hip fracture (HF), and non-vertebral non-hip fracture (NVNHFx), (mean; 95% CI) were 0.711 (0.608; 0.813), 0.712 (0.576; 0.843), 0.689 (0.576; 0.775), respectively. Combining BMSi and BMD provided further improvement in the discrimination of fractures with AUC values of 0.777 (0.695; 0.858), 0.789 (0.697; 0.882), and 0.821 (0.727; 0.914) for VFx, HFx, and NVNHFx, respectively. Low BMSi of the tibial cortex is associated with increased risk of all osteoporotic fractures and severity of vertebral fractures.
KeywordsBone quality Bone material strength Impact microindentation Vertebral fracture severity Fracture risk
We would like to thank the assistance from the staff at the Geriatrics Division of the Department of Medicine at the University Hospital, Oslo.
D. Duarte Sosa and EF Eriksen contributed to the experimental work and/or data collection. D. Duarte Sosa analyzed the data. All authors drafted and revised the paper critically for intellectual content and approved the final version. All authors agree to be accountable for the work.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of interest
The authors Daysi Duarte Sosa and Erik Fink Eriksen declare that they have no conflict of interest.
Research involving Human and Animal Rights
All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.
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