Diets High in Fat or Fructose Differentially Modulate Bone Health and Lipid Metabolism
- 594 Downloads
Diets high in fat or carbohydrates can lead to obesity and diabetes, two interrelated conditions that have been associated with osteoporosis. Here, we contrasted the effects of a high fat (HF) versus fructose-enriched carbohydrate (CH) versus regular chow (SC) diet on bone morphology, fat content and metabolic balance in BALB/cByJ mice over a 15-week period. For 13 weeks, there were no differences in body mass between groups with small differences in the last 2 weeks. Even without the potentially confounding factor of altered body mass and levels of load bearing, HF consumption was detrimental to bone in the distal femur with lower trabecular bone volume fraction and thinner cortices than controls. These differences in bone were accompanied by twofold greater abdominal fat content and fourfold greater plasma leptin concentrations. High-fat feeding caused a decrease in de-novo lipid synthesis in the liver, kidney, white adipose and brown adipose tissue. In contrast to HF, the fructose diet did not significantly impact bone quantity or architecture. Fructose consumption also did not significantly alter leptin levels or de-novo lipid synthesis but reduced epididymal adipose tissue and increased brown adipose tissue. Cortical stiffness was lower in the CH than in HF mice. There were no differences in glucose or insulin levels between groups. Together, a diet high in fat had a negative influence on bone structure, adipose tissue deposition and lipid synthesis, changes that were largely avoided with a fructose-enriched diet.
KeywordsTrabecular bone Cortical bone High-fat diet Fructose Lipid synthesis
We are grateful to Andrea Trinward, Charles Trujillo, Priya Vaitheesvaran, and Steven Tommasini for their technical contributions. Financial support from Stony Brook University School of Medicine TRO FUSION Award (SJ), NIH/NIAMS R01AR052778 (SJ), NASA NNX-12AL25G (SJ), and Einstein-Mount Sinai Diabetes Research Center Grant P60DK020541 (IJK) was greatly appreciated.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of interest
Aditi Jatkar, Irwin J. Kurland and Stefan Judex declare that they have no conflict of interest.
Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent
All procedures involving animals were approved by the IACUC at Stony Brook University.
- 6.Sacks FM, Bray GA, Carey VJ, Smith SR, Ryan DH, Anton SD, McManus K, Champagne CM, Bishop LM, Laranjo N, Leboff MS, Rood JC, de Jonge L, Greenway FL, Loria CM, Obarzanek E, Williamson DA (2009) Comparison of weight-loss diets with different compositions of fat, protein, and carbohydrates. N Engl J Med 360:859–873CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 15.Lecka-Czernik B, Stechschulte LA, Czernik PJ, Dowling AR (2015) High bone mass in adult mice with diet-induced obesity results from a combination of initial increase in bone mass followed by attenuation in bone formation; implications for high bone mass and decreased bone quality in obesity. Mol Cell Endocrinol 410:35–41CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 26.Haas JT, Miao J, Chanda D, Wang Y, Zhao E, Haas ME, Hirschey M, Vaitheesvaran B, Farese RV Jr, Kurland IJ, Graham M, Crooke R, Foufelle F, Biddinger SB (2012) Hepatic insulin signaling is required for obesity-dependent expression of SREBP-1c mRNA but not for feeding-dependent expression. Cell Metab 15:873–884CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 32.Scheller EL, Khoury B, Moller KL, Wee NK, Khandaker S, Kozloff KM, Abrishami SH, Zamarron BF, Singer K (2016) Changes in skeletal integrity and marrow adiposity during high-fat diet and after weight loss. Front Endocrinol 7. doi: 10.3389/fendo.2016.00102
- 44.Choi MS, Kim YJ, Kwon EY, Ryoo JY, Kim SR, Jung UJ (2015) High-fat diet decreases energy expenditure and expression of genes controlling lipid metabolism, mitochondrial function and skeletal system development in the adipose tissue, along with increased expression of extracellular matrix remodelling- and inflammation-related genes. Br J Nutr 113:867–877CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar