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Calcified Tissue International

, Volume 96, Issue 3, pp 183–195 | Cite as

Skeletal Muscle: A Brief Review of Structure and Function

  • Walter R. Frontera
  • Julien Ochala
Review

Abstract

Skeletal muscle is one of the most dynamic and plastic tissues of the human body. In humans, skeletal muscle comprises approximately 40 % of total body weight and contains 50–75 % of all body proteins. In general, muscle mass depends on the balance between protein synthesis and degradation and both processes are sensitive to factors such as nutritional status, hormonal balance, physical activity/exercise, and injury or disease, among others. In this review, we discuss the various domains of muscle structure and function including its cytoskeletal architecture, excitation-contraction coupling, energy metabolism, and force and power generation. We will limit the discussion to human skeletal muscle and emphasize recent scientific literature on single muscle fibers.

Keywords

Muscle actions Metabolism Force generation Exercise Sarcopenia Dystrophy 

Notes

Conflict of interest

Walter R. Frontera and Julien Ochala declare no conflict of interest.

Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Physical Medicine and RehabilitationVanderbilt University School of MedicineNashvilleUSA
  2. 2.Department of PhysiologyUniversity of Puerto Rico School of MedicineSan JuanUSA
  3. 3.Department of Human and Aerospace Physiological SciencesKing’s College LondonLondonUK

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