Calcified Tissue International

, Volume 80, Issue 5, pp 337–347

The New Field of Neuroskeletal Biology

Article

Abstract

The fields of neuroscience and bone biology have recently converged following the discovery that bone remodeling is directly regulated by the brain. This work has defined bone remodeling as one of the cardinal physiological functions of the body, subject to homeostatic regulation and integrated with the other major physiological functions by the hypothalamus. Central to this discovery was the definition of the adipocyte-derived hormone leptin as a regulator of both arms of bone remodeling, formation and resorption, through its action on the ventromedial hypothalamus and subsequently via the sympathetic nervous system to osteoblasts. The characterization of the sympathetic nervous system as a regulator of bone remodeling has led to several large clinical studies demonstrating a substantial protective effect of ß-blockers, particularly ß1-blockers, on fracture risk. Studies in model organisms have reinforced the role of the central nervous system in the regulation of bone remodeling in vivo by the identification of several additional genes, namely cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript (Cart), melanocortin 4 receptor (Mc4R), neuropeptide Y (NPY), Y2 receptor, cannabinoid receptor CB1 (Cnbr1), and the genes of the circadian clock. These genes have several common features, including high levels of expression in the hypothalamus and the ability to regulate other major physiological functions in addition to bone remodeling including energy homeostasis, body weight, and reproduction. We review the major pathways that define the new field of neuroskeletal biology and identify further avenues of inquiry.

Keywords

Skeleton Bone Adrenergic receptor Peptin Sympathetic nervous system 

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Medical GeneticsUniversity of British ColumbiaVancouverCanada
  2. 2.Department of Medicine/Clinical PharmacologyVanderbilt Center for Bone BiologyNashvilleUSA

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