Calcified Tissue International

, Volume 75, Issue 2, pp 90–99 | Cite as

Epidemiology of Osteoporosis and Fracture in Men

  • J. A. Kanis
  • O. Johnell
  • A. Oden
  • C. De Laet
  • D. Mellstrom
Osteoporosis in Men


  1. 1.
    Cummings, SR, Melton, LJ 2002Epidemiology and outcomes of osteoporotic fracturesLancet35917611767CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Consensus Development, Conference 1991Prophylaxis and treatment of osteoporosisAm J Med90107110CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    World Health Organization (1994) Assessment of fracture risk and its application to screening for postmenopausal osteoporosis, Tech Rep Ser 843Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Kanis, JA, Melton, LJ, Christiansen, C, Johnston, CC, Khaltaev, N 1994The diagnosis of osteoporosisJ Bone Miner Res911371141PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Marshall, D, Johnell, O, Wedel, H 1996Meta-analysis of how well measures of bone mineral density predict occurrence of osteoporotic fracturesBr Med J31212541259Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Kanis, JA Gluer, CC for the Committee of Scientific Advisors, International Osteoporosis Foundation2000An update on the diagnosis and assessment of osteoporosis with densitometryOsteoporos Int11192202CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Melton, LJ, Khosla, S, Achenbach, SJ, O’Connor, MK, O’Fallon, WM, Riggs, BL 2000Effects of body size and skeletal sites on the estimated prevalence of osteoporosis in men and womenOsteoporos Int11977983CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Looker, AC, Wahner, HW, Dunn, WL, Calvo, MS, Harris, TB, Heyse, SP 1998Updated data on proximal femur bone mineral levels of US adultsOsteoporos Int8468486CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Kanis, JA, Johnell, O, Oden, A, Jonsson, B, Laet, C, Dawson, A 2000Risk of hip fracture according to the World Health Organisation criteria for osteopenia and osteoporosisBone27585590CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Kanis, JA, Johnell, O, Oden, A, Sernbo, I, Redlund–Johnell, I, Dawson, A, Laet, C, Jonsson, B 2000Long-term risk of osteoporotic fracture in MalmoOsteoporos Int11669674CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Orwoll, E 2000Assessing bone density in menJ Bone Miner Res1518761880Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Selby, PL, Davies, M, Adams, JE 2000Do men and women fracture bones at similar bone densities?Osteoporos Int11153157CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Lunt, M, Felsenberg, D, Reeve, J, Benevolenskaya, L, Cannata, J, Dequeker, J 1997Bone density variation and its effect on risk of vertebral deformity in men and women studied in thirteen European Centres: the EVOS StudyJ Bone Miner Res1218831894PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Nguyen, T, Sambrook, SP, Kelly, P, Jones, G, Freund, J, Eisman, J 1993Prediction of osteoporotic fractures by postural instability and bone densityBr Med J30711111115Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Melton, LJ, Atkinson, EJ, O’Connor, MK, O’Fallon, WM, Riggs, BL 1998Bone density and fracture risk in menJ Bone Miner Res1319151923PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Laet, CEDH, Hout, BA, Burger, H, Weal, AEAM, Hofman, A, Pols, HAP 1998Hip fracture prediction in elderly men and women: validation in the Rotterdam StudyJ Bone Miner Res1315871593PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Hui, SL, Slemenda, CW, Johnston, CC 1988Age and bone mass as predictors of fracture in a prospective studyJ Clin Invest811804l809PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Laet, CEDH, Klift, M, Hofman, A, Pols, HA 2002Osteoporosis in men and women: A story about bone mineral density thresholds and hip fracture riskJ Bone Miner Res1722312236PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Kanis, JA, Johnell, O, Oden, A, Laet, C, Mellstrom, D 2001fDiagnosis of osteoporosis and fracture threshold in men Calcif Tissue Int69218221Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Klotzbuecher, CM, Ross, PD, Landsman, PB, Abbott, TA, Berger, M 2000Patients with prior fractures have an increased risk of future fractures: a summary of the literature and statistical synthesisJ Bone Miner Res15721739PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Black, DM, Jergas, M, Palermo, L, Nevitt, MC, Genant, H, Cummings, SR 1994Do vertebral fractures predict hip and other osteoporotic fractures?J Bone Miner Res9S330Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Cuddihy, M-T, Gabriel, SE, Crowson, CS, O’Fallon, WM, Melton, LJ,III 1999Forearm fractures as predictors of subsequent osteoporotic fracturesOsteoporos Int9496475Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Melton, LJ, Atkinson, EJ, Cooper, C, O’Fallon, WM, Riggs, BL 1999aVertebral fractures predict subsequent fracturesOsteoporos Int10214221CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Mallmin, H, Ljunghall, S, Persson, I, Naessen, T, Krusemo, UB, Bergstrom, R 1993Fracture of the distal forearm as a forecaster of subsequent hip fracture. A population based cohort study with 24 year follow upCalcif Tissue Int52269272Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Johnell, O, Kanis, JA, Gullberg, B 2001Mortality, morbidity and assessment of fracture risk in male osteoporosisCalcif Tissue Int69182184CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Van Staa, TP, Luefkens, HGM, Cooper, C 2002Does a fracture at one site predict later fractures at other sites? A British cohort studyOsteoporos Int13624629CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Sanders, KM, Pasco, JA, Ugoni, AM, Nicholson, GC, Seeman, E, Martin, TJ, Skoric, B, Panahi, S, Kotowicz, MA 1998The exclusion of high trauma fractures may underestimate the prevalence of bone fragility fractures in the community: The Geelong osteoporosis studyJ Bone Miner Res1313371342PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Seeley, DG Browner, WS Nevitt, MC Genant, HK Scott, JC Cummings, SR for the study of osteoporotic fractures Research Group1991Which fractures are associated with low appendicular bone mass in elderly women?Ann Intern Med115837842PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Lippuner, K, Overbeck, J, Perrelet, R, Bossard, H, Jaeger, Ph 1997Incidence and direct medical costs of hospitalisations due to osteoporotic fractures in SwedenOsteoporos Int7414425PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Phillips, S, Fox, N, Jacobs, J, Wright, WE 1988The direct medical cost of osteoporosis from American women aged 45 and older, 1986Bone9271279CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Melton, LJ, Thamer, M, Ray, NF, Chan, JK, Chesnut, CH, Einhorn, TA, Johnston, CC, Raisz, LG, Silverman, SL, Siris, ES 1997Fractures attributable to osteoporosis: Report from the National Osteoporosis FoundationJ Bone Miner Res121623PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Kanis, JA, Oden, A, Johnell, O, Jonsson, B, Laet, C, Dawson, A 2001The burden of osteoporotic fractures: a method for setting intervention thresholdsOsteoporos Int12417427CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Kotowicz, MA, Melton, LJ, Cooper, C, Atkinson, EJ, O’Fallon, WM, Riggs, BL 1994Risk of hip fracture in women with vertebral fractureJ Bone Miner Res9599605PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Ross, PD, Davis, JW, Epstein, RS, Wasnich, RD 1991Pre-existing fractures and bone mass predict vertebral fracture incidence in womenAnn Intern Med114919923PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Honkanen, R, Kroger, H, Tuppurainen, M, Alhava, E, Saarikoski, S 1995Fractures and low axial bone density in perimenopausal womenJ Clin Epidemiol48881888CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Honkanen, R, Tuppurainen, M, Kroger, H, Alhava, E, Saarikoski, S 1998Relationships between risk factors and fractures differ by type of fracture: a population-based study of 12192 perimenopausal womenOsteoporos Int82531CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Sanders, KM, Seeman, E, Ugoni, AM, Pasco, JA, Martin, TJ, Skoric, B, Nicholson, GC 1999Age and gender-specific rate of fractures in Australia: a population based studyOsteoporos Int10240247CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Jones, G, Nguyen, PN, Sambroske, PN, KellyPJ Gilbert, C, Eisman, JA 1994Symptomatic fracture incidence in elderly men and women. The Dubbo Osteoporosis Epidemiology Study (DOES)Osteoporos Int4277282PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Singer, BR, McLauchlan, CJ, Robinson, CM, Christie, J 1998Epidemiology of fracture in 15000 adults. The influence of age and genderJ Bone Joint Surg80B234238Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Donaldson, LJ, Cook, A, Thomson, RG 1990Incidence of Fractures in a geographically defined populationJ Epidemiol Community Health44241245PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Kanis, JA, Pitt, FA 1992Epidemiology of osteoporosisBone13S51S59CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Johansen, A, Evans, RJ, Stone, MD, Richmond, PW, Lo, SV, Woodhouse, KW 1997Fracture incidence in England and Wales: a study based on the population of CardiffInjury28655660CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Knowelden, J, Buhr, AJ, Dunbar, O 1964Incidence of fractures in persons over 35 years of age: a working party on fractures in the elderlyBr J Prev SocMed18130141Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Fife, D, Barancik, JI 1985North Eastern Ohio Trauma Study III: Incidence of fracturesAnn Emerg Med14244248PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Buhr, AJ, Cooke, AM 1959Fracture patternsLanceti531536CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Bengner, U, Johnell, O 1985Increasing incidence of forearm fracture. A comparison of epidemiological patterns 25 years apartActa Orthop Scand56158160PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Melton, LJ, Crowson, CS, O’Fallon, WM 1999bFracture incidence in Olmsted County, Minnesota: comparison of urban with rural rates and changes in urban rates over timeOsteoporos Int92937CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Johnell, O, Gullberg, B, Kanis, JA 1997The hospital burden of vertebral fractureA study of national register sources. Osteoporos Int7138144Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Melton, LJ 1995

    Epidemiology of fractures

    Riggs, BLMelton, LJ eds. Osteoporosis: etiology, diagnosis and management2nd edLippincott-Raven pressPhiladelphia225247
    Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Elffors, L, Allander, E, Kanis, JA, Gullberg, B, Johnell, O, Dequeker, J, Dilzen, G, Gennari, C, Lopez–Vaz, AA, Lyritis, G, Mazzuoli, GF, Miravet, L, Passeri, M, Perez Cano, R, Rapado, A, Ribot, C 1994The variable incidence of hip fracture in Southern Europe: The MEDOS StudyOsteoporos Int4253263PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Johnell, O, Gullberg, B, Allander, A, Kanis, JA 1992The apparent incidence of hip fracture in EuropeOsteoporos Int2298302PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Bacon, WE, Maggi, S, Looker, A, Harris, T, Navi, CR, Giaconi, J, Honkanen, R, Ho, SC, Peffers, KA, Torring, O, Gass, R, Gonzalez, N 1996International comparison of hip fracture rates in 1988–1989Osteoporos Int66975PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    O’Neill, TW Felsenberg, D Varlow, J Cooper, C Kanis, JA Silman, AJ the EVOS Study Group1996The prevalence of vertebral deformity in European men and women: The European Vertebral Osteoporosis StudyJ Bone Miner Res1110101018PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    The European Prospective Osteoporosis Study Group2002Incidence of vertebral fractures in Europe: results from the European Prospective Osteoporosis Study (EPOS)J Bone Miner Res17716724PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Klift, M, Laet, CEDH, McCloskey, EV, Hofman, A, Pols, HAP 2002The incidence of vertebral fractures in men and women: The Rotterdam StudyJ Bone Miner Res1710511056PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Cooper, C, Atkinson, EJ, O’Fallon, WM, Melton, LJ 1992Incidence of clinically diagnosed vertebral fractures: a population based study in Rochester, Minnesota, 1985–1989J Bone Miner Res7221227PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Silman, AJ 1995The patient with fracture: the risk of subsequent fracturesAm J Med981216Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Bickerstaff, DR, Kanis, JA 1994Algodystrophy: an under-recognised complication of minor traumaBr J Rheumatol33240248PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Hoffenberg, R, James, O, Brocklehurst, JC, Green, ID, Horrocks, O, Kanis, JA, Wald, NH, MacLellan, GE, Vickers, RH, Hibbs, PJ, Halliday, NP, Pyke, DA 1989Fractured neck of femur. Prevention and managementJ R Coll Physicians Lond23812PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    United, Nations 1995The sex and age distributions of population The 1994 revision of the United Nations global population estimates and projectionsUnited NationsNew YorkGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Gullberg, B, Johnell, O, Kanis, JA 1997World-wide projections for hip fractureOsteoporos Int7407413PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Boyce, WJ, Vessey, MP 1985Rising incidence of vertebral fracture of the proximal femurLancet1150CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Parkkari, J, Kannus, P, Niemi, S, Pasane, M, Jarvinen, M, Luthje, P, Vuori, I 1994Increasing age-adjusted incidence of hip fractures in Finland. The number and incidence of fractures in 1970–1991 and prediction for the futureCalcif Tissue Int55342345PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Falch, JA, Kaastad, TS, Bohler, G, Espeland, J, Sundsvold, OJ 1993Secular increase and geographical differences in hip fracture incidence of NorwayBone14643645CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Boerboom, FTJ, Raymakers, JA, deGroot, R, Duursma, SA 1992Epidemiology of hip fractures in the Netherlands: women compared with menOsteoporos Int2279284PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Gullberg, B, Duppe, H, Nilsson, B, Redlund–Johnell, I, Sernbo, I, Obrant, K 1993Incidence of hip fractures in Malmo, Sweden (1950–1991)Bone.s23s29CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Spector, TD, Cooper, C, Lewis, AE 1990Trends in admission for hip fracture in England and Wales, 1968–85B M J30011731174Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Cooper, C, Campion, G, Melton, LJ 1992bHip fractures in the elderly: a world-wide projectionOsteoporos Int2285289Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Bengner, U, Johnell, O, Redlund–Johnell, I 1988Changes in incidence and prevalence of vertebral fractures during 30 yearsCalcif Tissue Int42293296Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Delmas, PD 2002Treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosisLancet35920182026CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Kanis, JA, Passmore, R 1989Calcium supplementation of the dietBMJ296137140205–208Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Johnell, O, Oden, A, Caulin, F, Kanis, JA 2001Acute and long-term increase in fracture risk after hospitalisation for vertebral fractureOsteoporos Int12207214CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Cooper, C, Atkinson, EJ, Jacobsen, SJ, O’Fallon, WM, Melton, LJ 1993Population based study of survival after osteoporotic fractureAm J Epidemiol13710011005PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Kanis, JA 2002Diagnosis of osteoporosis and assessment of fracture riskLancet35919291936CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Kanis, JA, Johnell, O, Oden, A, Dawson, A, Laet, C, Jonsson, B 2001Ten year probabilities of osteoporotic fractures according to BMD and diagnostic thresholdsOsteoporos Int12989995CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Kanis, JA, Johnell, O, Oden, A, Laet, C, Jonsson, B, Dawson, A 2001Ten year risk of osteoporotic fracture and the effect of risk factors on screening strategiesBone30251258CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Kanis, JA, Torgerson, D, Cooper, C 2000Comparison of the European and US practice guidelines for osteoporosisTrends Endocrinol Metab112832CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Kanis, JA Delmas, P Burckhardt, P Cooper, C Torgerson, D on behalf of the European Foundation for Osteoporosis and Bone Disease1999Guidelines for diagnosis and management of osteoporosisOsteoporos Int7390406Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    National Osteoporosis, Foundation 1998Osteoporosis: Review of the evidence for prevention, diagnosis and treatment and cost-effectiveness analysisOsteoporos Int8188CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Royal College of Physicians1999Clinical guidelines for the prevention and treatment of osteoporosisRCPLondonGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. A. Kanis
    • 1
  • O. Johnell
    • 2
  • A. Oden
    • 3
  • C. De Laet
    • 4
  • D. Mellstrom
    • 5
  1. 1.WHO Collaborating Centre for Metabolic Bone DiseasesUniversity of Sheffield Medical SchoolSheffieldUnited Kingdom
  2. 2.Department of OrthopaedicsMalmo General HospitalMalmoSweden
  3. 3.Consulting StatisticianGothenbergSweden
  4. 4.Department of Public HealthErasmus MC RotterdamThe Netherlands
  5. 5.Department of Geriatric MedicineUniversity of GoteborgGoteborgSweden

Personalised recommendations