Musical training enhances temporal adaptation of auditory-motor synchronization
To coordinate their actions successfully with auditory events, individuals must be able to adapt their behaviour flexibly to environmental changes. Previous work has shown that musical training enhances the flexibility to synchronize behaviour with a wide range of stimulus periods. The current experiment investigated whether musical training enhances temporal adaptation to period perturbations as listeners tapped with a metronome, and whether this enhancement is specific to individuals’ Spontaneous Production Rates (SPRs; individuals’ natural uncued rates). Both musicians and nonmusicians adapted more quickly to period perturbations that slowed down than to those that sped up. Importantly, musicians adapted more quickly to all period perturbations than nonmusicians. Fits of a damped harmonic oscillator model to the tapping measures confirmed musicians’ faster adaptation and greater responsiveness to period perturbations. These results suggest that, even when the task is tailored to individual SPRs, musical training increases the flexibility with which individuals can adapt to changes in their environment during auditory-motor tasks.
KeywordsFlexibility Auditory-motor synchronization Temporal adaptation Musical training Spontaneous production rates
This research was supported by a Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC) Collaborative Research and Training Experience (CREATE) fellowship to Rebecca Scheurich, a Fulbright award to Peter Pfordresher, and NSERC Grant 298173 and a Canada Research Chair to Caroline Palmer. We are grateful to Maya Aharon, Jamie Dunkle, Frances Spidle, and Anna Zamm for their assistance.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
- Akaike H (1973) Information theory and an extension of the maximum likelihood principle. In: Petrox BN, Caski F (eds) 2nd Int. Symp. information theory. Akademiai Kiado, Budapest, pp 267–281Google Scholar
- Elzhov TV, Mullen KM, Spiess A-N, Bolker B (2016) minpack.lm: R interface to the Levenberg-Marquardt nonlinear least squares algorithm found in MINPACK, plus support for bounds. R Package Version 1.2-1. https://cran.r-project.org/web/packages/minpack.lm/minpack.lm.pdf. Accessed 21 Nov 2018
- Holm S (1979) A simple sequentially rejective multiple test procedure. Scand J Stat 6:65–70Google Scholar
- Krause V, Pollok B, Schnitzler A (2010) Perception in action: the impact of sensory information on sensorimotor synchronization in musicians and non-musicians. Acta Physiol (Oxf) 133(1):28–37Google Scholar
- R Core Team (2012) R: a language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria. https://www.R-project.org/. Accessed 21 Nov 2018