Advertisement

Force perception at the shoulder after a unilateral suprascapular nerve block

  • David PhillipsEmail author
  • Peter Kosek
  • Andrew Karduna
Research Article
  • 54 Downloads

Abstract

There are two key sources of information that can be used to match forces—the centrally generated sense of effort and afferent signals from mechanical receptors located in peripheral tissues. There is currently no consensus on which source of information is more important for matching forces. The corollary discharge hypothesis argues that subjects match forces using the centrally generated sense of effort. The purpose of this study was to investigate force matching at the shoulder before and after a suprascapular nerve block. The nerve block creates a sensory and muscle force mismatch between sides when matching loads. The torque matching accuracy did not change after the nerve block was administered. Directionally, the torque error was in the direction proposed by the corollary discharge hypothesis. However, the mismatch between deltoid EMG was substantially greater compared to the changes in the torque matching error after the block. The results support that sensory information is used during force matching tasks. However, since the nerve block also created a sensory disruption between sides, it is not clear how sensory information is reweighted following the nerve block and a role for sense of effort is still implicated.

Keywords

Supraspinatus Isometric ramp contraction Deltoid EMG Suprascapular nerve Force perception 

Notes

Funding

Research reported in this publication was partially supported by the National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases (NIAMS) of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) under award number 5R01AR063713.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors have no conflicts of interest to disclose.

References

  1. Adreani CM, Hill JM, Kaufman MP, Christine M, Hill JM, Marc P (1997) Responses of group III and IV muscle afferents to dynamic exercise. J Appl Physiol 82:1811–1817CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Amann M (2013) Significance of group III and IV muscle afferents for the endurance exercising human. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol 39(9):831–835CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Barbosa TC, Vianna LC, Fernandes IA, Prodel E, Rocha HNM, Garcia VP, Nobrega ACL (2016) Intrathecal fentanyl abolishes the exaggerated blood pressure response to cycling in hypertensive men. J Physiol 594(3):715–725CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Brasil-Neto JP, Valls-Solé J, Pascual-Leone A, Cammarota A, Amassian VE, Cracco R, Cohen LG (1993) Rapid modulation of human cortical motor outputs following ischaemic nerve block. Brain J Neurol 116(Pt 3):511–525CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Cafarelli E, Bigland-Ritchie B (1979) Sensation of static force in muscles of different length. Exp Neurol 65(3):511–525CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Carson RG, Riek S, Shahbazpour N (2002) Central and peripheral mediation of human force sensation following eccentric or concentric contractions. J Physiol 539(Pt 3):913–925CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Christensen MS, Lundbye-Jensen J, Geertsen SS, Petersen TH, Paulson OB, Nielsen JB (2007) Premotor cortex modulates somatosensory cortex during voluntary movements without proprioceptive feedback. Nat Neurosci 10(4):417–419CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. de Morree HM, De Klein C, Marcora SM (2012) Perception of effort reflects central motor command during movement execution. Psychophysiology 49:1242–1253CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Gregory JE, Brockett CL, Morgan DL, Whitehead NP, Proske U (2002) Effect of eccentric muscle contractions on Golgi tendon organ responses to passive and active tension in the cat. J Physiol 538(Pt 1):209–218CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Gregory JE, Morgan DL, Proske U (2004) Responses of muscle spindles following a series of eccentric contractions. Exp Brain Res 157(2):234–240CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Jones L, Hunter IW (1983) Effect of fatigue on force sensation. Exp Neurol 81:640–650CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Jones L, Piateski E (2006) Contribution of tactile feedback from the hand to the perception of force. Exp Brain Res 168:298–302CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Lafargue G, Paillard J, Lamarre Y, Sirigu A (2003) Production and perception of grip force without proprioception: Is there a sense of effort in deafferented subjects? Eur J Neurosci 17(12):2741–2749CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Luu BL, Day BL, Cole JD, Fitzpatrick RC (2011) The fusimotor and reafferent origin of the sense of force and weight. J Physiol 589(Pt 13):3135–3147CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Mangalam M, Conners JD, Singh T (2018) Muscular effort differentially mediates perception of heaviness and length via dynamic touch. Exp Brain Res 237:237–246CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. McCloskey D, Ebeling P, Goodwin GM (1974) Estimation of weights and tensions and apparent involvement of a “sense of effort”. Exp Neurol 42(1):220–232CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. McCloskey D, Gandevia S, Potter E, Colebatch J (1983) Muscle sense and effort: motor commands and judgements about muscular contractions. Adv Neurol 39:151–167Google Scholar
  18. McCully SP, Suprak DN, Kosek P, Karduna AR (2007) Suprascapular nerve block results in a compensatory increase in deltoid muscle activity. J Biomech 40(8):1839–1846CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Monjo F, Shemmell J, Forestier N (2018) The sensory origin of the sense of effort is context-dependent. Exp Brain Res 236:1997–2008CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Monzee J, Yves L, Smith A (2003) The effects of digital anesthesia on force control using a precision grip. J Neurophysiol 89:672–683CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Proske U, Allen T (2019) The neural basis of the senses of effort, force and heaviness. Exp Brain Res 1:1–11Google Scholar
  22. Proske U, Gregory JE, Morgan DL, Percival P, Weerakkody NS, Canny BJ (2004) Force matching errors following eccentric exercise. Hum Mov Sci 23(3–4 SPE. ISS.):365–378CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Riemann BL, Lephart SM (2002) The sensorimotor system, part I: The physiologic basis of functional joint stability. J Athletic Train 37(1):71–79Google Scholar
  24. Sanes JN, Shadmehr R (1995) Sense of muscular effort and somesthetic afferent information in humans. Can J Physiol Pharmacol 73(2):223–233CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Smith SA, Querry RG, Fadel PJ, Gallagher KM, Strømstad M, Ide K, Secher NH (2003) Partial blockade of skeletal muscle somatosensory afferents attenuates baroreflex resetting during exercise in humans. J Physiol 551(3):1013–1021CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Toma S, Lacquaniti F (2016) Mapping muscles activation to force perception during unloading. PLoS One 11(3):1–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Tucker R (2009) The anticipatory regulation of performance: The physiological basis for pacing strategies and the development of a perception-based model for exercise performance. Br J Sports Med 43(6):392–400CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Waddell ML, Amazeen EL (2017) Evaluating the contributions of muscle activity and joint kinematics to weight perception across multiple joints. Exp Brain Res 235(8):2437–2448CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Waddell ML, Fine JM, Likens AD, Amazeen EL, Amazeen PG (2016) Perceived heaviness in the context of newton’s second law: combined effects of muscle activity and lifting kinematics. J Exp Psychol Hum Percept Perform 42(3):363–374CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Zenon A, Sidibe M, Olivier E (2015) Disrupting the supplementary motor area makes physical effort appear less effortful. J Neurosci 35(23):8737–8744CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Exercise Science and Physical EducationMontclair State UniversityMontclairUSA
  2. 2.Oregon NeurosurgerySpringfieldUSA
  3. 3.Department of Human PhysiologyUniversity of OregonEugeneUSA

Personalised recommendations