Advertisement

Experimental Brain Research

, Volume 236, Issue 8, pp 2185–2207 | Cite as

Touch the table before the target: contact with an underlying surface may assist the development of precise visually controlled reach and grasp movements in human infants

  • Jenni M. Karl
  • Alexis M. Wilson
  • Marisa E. Bertoli
  • Noor S. Shubear
Research Article

Abstract

Multiple motor channel theory posits that skilled hand movements arise from the coordinated activation of separable neural circuits in parietofrontal cortex, each of which produces a distinct movement and responds to different sensory inputs. Prehension, the act of reaching to grasp an object, consists of at least two movements: a reach movement that transports the hand to a target location and a grasp movement that shapes and closes the hand for target acquisition. During early development, discrete pre-reach and pre-grasp movements are refined based on proprioceptive and tactile feedback, but are gradually coordinated together into a singular hand preshaping movement under feedforward visual control. The neural and behavioural factors that enable this transition are currently unknown. In an attempt to identify such factors, the present descriptive study used frame-by-frame video analysis to examine 9-, 12-, and 15-month-old infants, along with sighted and unsighted adults, as they reached to grasp small ring-shaped pieces of cereal (Cheerios) resting on a table. Compared to sighted adults, infants and unsighted adults were more likely to make initial contact with the underlying table before they contacted the target. The way in which they did so was also similar in that they generally contacted the table with the tip of the thumb and/or pinky finger, a relatively open hand, and poor reach accuracy. Despite this, infants were similar to sighted adults in that they tended to use a pincer digit, defined as the tip of the thumb or index finger, to subsequently contact the target. Only in infants was this ability related to their having made prior contact with the underlying table. The results are discussed in relation to the idea that initial contact with an underlying table or surface may assist infants in learning to use feedforward visual control to direct their digits towards a precise visual target.

Keywords

Development of reaching and grasping Infant reaching and grasping Prehension Visually guided reaching and grasping Dual visuomotor channel theory Multiple motor channel theory Peri-hand space Near-hand space Development of peripersonal space 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors would like to thank Kaleb Crossley, Jordan Houle, and Ashleigh White for their assistance with data coding and analysis. This research was supported by the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (JMK) (Grant no. RGPIN-2017-05995).

References

  1. Arbib M, Iberall A, Lyons TD (1985) Coordinated control program for movements of the hand, in hand function and the neocortex. Exp Brain Res Suppl 10:111–129Google Scholar
  2. Babik I, Galloway JC, Lobo MA (2017) Infants born preterm demonstrate impaired exploration of their bodies and surfaces throughout the first two years of life. Phys Ther 97:915-925. https://doi.org/10.1093/ptj/pzx064 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Barret TM, Needham A (2008) Developmental differences in infants’ use of an object’s shape to grasp it securely. Dev Psychobiol 50:97–106.  https://doi.org/10.1002/dev.20280 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Berthier NE, Carrico RL (2010) Visual information and object size in infant reaching. Infant Behav Dev 33:555–566.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.infbeh.2010.07.007 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Binkofski F, Dohle C, Posse S, Stephan KM, Hefter H, Seitz RJ, Freund HJ (1998) Human anterior intraparietal area subserves prehension: a combined lesion and functional MRI activation study. Neurology 50:1253–1259CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Bourne JA, Morrone MC (2017) Plasticity of visual pathways and function in the developing brain: Is the pulvinar a crucial player? Front Syst Neurosci 11:3.  https://doi.org/10.3389/fnsys.2017.00003 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  7. Brockmole JR, Davoli CC, Abrams RA, Witt JK (2013) The world within reach: effects of hand posture and tool use on visual cognition. Curr Dir Psycol Sci 22:38–44.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0963721412465065 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Brown LE, Goodale MA (2013) A brief review of the role of training in near-tool effects. Front Psychol 4:576.  https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2013.00576 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  9. Brown LE, Kroliczak G, Demonet JF, Goodale MA (2008) A hand in blindsight: hand placement near target improves size perception in the blind visual field. Neuropsychologia 46:786–802.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2007.10.006 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Brown LE, Marlin MC, Morrow S (2015) On the contribution of vision and proprioception to the representation of hand-near targets. J Neurophysiol 113:409–419.  https://doi.org/10.1152/jn.00005.2014 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Brozzoli C, Ehrsson HH, Farnè A (2014) Multisensory representation of the space near the hand: from perception to action and interindividual interactions. Neuroscientist 20:122–135.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1073858413511153 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Bushnell EW (1985) The decline of visually guided reaching during infancy. Infant Behav Dev 8:139–155.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0163-6383(85)80002-3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Caminiti R, Chafee MV, Battaglia-Mayer A, Averbeck BB, Crowe DA, Georgopoulos AP (2010) Understanding the parietal lobe syndrome from a neurophysiological and evolutionary perspective. Eur J Neurosci 31:2320–2340.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1460-9568.2010.07291.x CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  14. Carrico RL, Berthier NE (2008) Vision and precision reaching in 15-month-old infants. Infant Behav Dev 31:62–70.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.infbeh.2007.07.005 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Case-Smith J, Bigsby R, Clutter J (1998) Perceptual-motor coupling in the development of grasp. Am J Occup Ther 52:102–110CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Cavina-Pratesi C, Ietswaart M, Humphreys GW, Lestou V, Milner AD (2010a) Impaired grasping in a patient with optic ataxia: primary visuomotor deficit or secondary consequence of misreaching? Neuropsychologia 48:226–234.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2009.09.008 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Cavina-Pratesi C, Monaco S, Fattori P, Galletti C, McAdam TD, Quinlan DJ, Goodale MA, Culham JC (2010b) Functional magnetic resonance imaging reveals the neural substrates of arm transport and grip formation in reach-to-grasp actions in humans. J Neurosci 30:10306–10323.  https://doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.2023-10.2010 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Clifton RK, Muir DW, Ashmead DH, Clarkson MG (1993) Is visually guided reaching in early infancy a myth? Child Dev 64:1099–1110CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Clifton RK, Rochat P, Robin DJ, Berthier NE (1994) Multimodal perception in the control of infant reaching. J Exp Psychol Hum Percept Perform 20:876–886CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Cohen J (1960) A coefficient of agreement for nominal scales. Educ Psychol Meas 20:37–46CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Corbetta D, Guan Y, Williams JL (2012) Infant eye-tracking in the context of goal-directed actions. Infancy 17:102–125.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1532-7078.2011.00093.x CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Corbetta D, Thurman SL, Wiener RF, Guan Y, Williams JL (2014) Mapping the feel of the arm with the sight of the object: on the embodied origins of infant reaching. Front Psychol 5:576.  https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2014.00576 PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Corbetta D, Williams JL, Haynes JM (2016) Bare fingers, but no obvious influence of “prickly” Velcro! In the absence of parents’ encouragement, it is not clear that “sticky mittens” provide an advantage to the process of learning to reach. Infant Behav Dev 42:168–178.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.infbeh.2015.05.001 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Culham JC, Cavian-Pratesi C, Singhal A (2006) The role of parietal cortex in visuomotor control: what have we learned from neuroimaging? Neuropsychologia 44:2668–2684.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2005.11.003 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Domellöff E, Hopkins B, Francis B, Rönnqvist L (2007) Effects of finger markers on the kinematics of reaching movements in young children and adults. J Appl Biomech 23:315–321CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Dunn OJ (1964) Multiple comparisons using rank sums. Technometrics 6(3):241–252CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Edelman GM (1993) Neural Darwinism: selection and reentrant signaling in higher brain function. Neuron 10:115–125.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0896-6273(93)90304-A CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Ferrari-Toniolo S, Visco-Comandini F, Papazachariadis O, Caminiti R, Battaglia-Mayer A (2015) Posterior parietal cortex encoding of dynamic hand force underlying hand-object interaction. J Neurosci 35:10899–10910.  https://doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.4696-14.2015 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Georgopoulos AP, Grillner S (1989) Visuomotor coordination in reaching and locomotion. Science 245:1209–1210.  https://doi.org/10.1126/science.2675307 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Goodhew SC, Clarke R (2016) Contributions of parvocellular and magnocellular pathways to visual perception near the hands are not fixed, but can by dynamically altered. Psychon Bull Rev 23:156–162.  https://doi.org/10.3758/s13423-015-0844-1 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Goodhew SC, Edwards M, Ferber S, Pratt J (2015) Altered visual perception near the hands: a critical review of attentional and neurophysiological models. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 55:223–233.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neubiorev.2015.05.006 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Gozli DG, West GL, Pratt J (2012) Hand position alters vision by biasing processing through different visual pathways. Cognition 124:244–250.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2012.04.008 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Graziano MS, Taylor CS, Moore T (2002) Complex movements evoked by microstimulation of precentral cortex. Neuron 34:841–851.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0896-6273(02)00698-0 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Greulich RS, Adam R, Everling S, Scherberger H (2017) Separate resting state networks for grasping and visually guided reaching in macaques. In: Program No. 403.26. 2017 Neuroscience meeting planner. Society for Neuroscience, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  35. Hall LA, Karl JM, Thomas BL, Whishaw IQ (2014) Reach and grasp reconfigurations reveal that proprioception assists reaching and hapsis assists grasping in peripheral vision. Exp Brain Res 232:2807–2819.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00221-014-3945-6 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Hallgren KA (2012) Computing inter-rater reliability for observational data: an overview and tutorial. Tutor Quant Methods Psychol 8:23–34.  https://doi.org/10.20982/tqmp.08.1.p023 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  37. Jeannerod M (1981) Intersegmental coordination during reaching at natural visual objects. In: Long J, Badeley A (eds) Attention and performance IX. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Hillsdale, pp 152–169Google Scholar
  38. Jeannerod M, Decety J, Michel F (1994) Impairment of grasping movements following bilateral posterior parietal lesion. Neuropsychologica 32:369–380.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0028-3932(94)90084-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Kaas JH, Stepniewska I (2016) Evolution of posterior parietal cortex and parietal-frontal networks for specific actions in primates. J Comp Neurol 524:595–608.  https://doi.org/10.1002/cne.23838 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Kao KC, Goodale MA (2009) Enhanced detection of visual targets on the hand and familiar tools. Neuropsychologia 47:2454–2463.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2009.04.016 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Karl JM, Whishaw IQ (2013) Different evolutionary origins for the reach and the grasp: an explanation for dual visuomotor channels in primate parietofrontal cortex. Front Neurol 23:208.  https://doi.org/10.3389/fneur.2013.00208 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Karl JM, Whishaw IQ (2014) Haptic grasping configurations in early infancy reveal different developmental profiles for visual guidance of the Reach versus the Grasp. Exp Brain Res 232:3301–3316.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00221-014-4013-y CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Karl JM, Sacrey LA, Doan JB, Whishaw IQ (2012) Hand shaping using hapsis resembles visually guided hand shaping. Exp Brain Res 219:59–74.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00221-012-3067-y CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Karl JM, Schneider LR, Whishaw IQ (2013) Nonvisual learning of intrinsic object properties in a reaching task dissociates grasp from reach. Exp Brain Res 225:465–477.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00221-012-3386-z CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Karl JM, Wilson AM, Wilson C, Shubear NS (2017) Haptic feedback from stabilization of the hand on an underlying surface facilitates the initial development of visually-guided finger movements for reach and grasping in 12-month-old human infants. In: Program No. 495.09. 2017 Neuroscience meeting planner. Society for Neuroscience, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  46. Karl JM, Sacrey LA, Whishaw IQ (2018) Multiple motor channel theory and the development of skilled hand movements in human infants. In Corbetta D, Santello M (eds) The selection and production of goal-directed behaviours: neural correlates, development, learning, and modeling of reach-to-grasp movements. Routledge Taylor & Francis, AbingdonGoogle Scholar
  47. Kastner S, Chen Q, Jeong SK, Mruczek RE (2017) A brief comparative review of primate posterior parietal cortex: a novel hypothesis on the human toolmaker. Neuropsychologia.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2017.01.034 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Lee MH, Newell KM (2012) Visual feedback of hand trajectory and the development of infant prehension. Infant Behav Dev 35:273–279.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.infbeh.2011.12.004 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Lobo MA, Galloway JC (2013) The onset of reaching significantly impacts how infants explore both objects and their bodies. Infant Behav Dev 36:14–24.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.infbeh.2012.09.003 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Lockman JJ, Ashmead DH, Bushnell EW (1984) The development of anticipatory hand orientation during infancy. J Exp Child Psychol 37:176–186.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0022-0965(84)90065-1 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. McDonnell PM (1979) The development of visually guided reaching. Percept Psychophys 19:181–185.  https://doi.org/10.3758/BF03205963 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Morrongiello BA, Rocca PT (1989) Visual feedback and anticipatory hand orientation during infants’ reaching. Percept Mot Skill 69:787–802.  https://doi.org/10.2466/pms.1989.69.3.787 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Mundinano IC, Chen J, de Souza M, Sarossy MG, Joanisse MF, Goodale MA, Bourne JA (2017) More than blindsight: case report of a child with extraordinary visual capacity following perinatal bilateral occipital lobe injury. Neuropsychologia.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2017.11.017 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Mundinano I, Fox DM, Kwan WC, Vidaurre D, Teo L, Homman-Ludiye J, Goodale MA, Leopold DA, Bourne JA (2018) Transient visual pathway critical for normal development of primate grasping behavior. PNAS.  https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1717016115 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Perry CJ, Fallah M (2017) Effector-based attention systems. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1396:56–69.  https://doi.org/10.1111/nyas.13354 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Perry CJ, Sergio LE, Crawford JD, Fallah M (2015) Hand placement near the visual stimulus improves orientation selectivity in V2 neurons. J Neurophysiol 113:2859–2870.  https://doi.org/10.1152/jn.00919.2013 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  57. Piaget J (1952) The origins of intelligence in children. Basic Books, New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Rochat P (1987) Mouthing and grasping in neonates: evidence for the early detection of what hard or soft substances afford for action. Infant Behav Dev 10:435–449.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0163-6383(87)90041-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Rochat P (1989) Object manipulation and exploration in 2- to 5-month old infants. Dev Psychol 25:871–884.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0012-1649.25.6.871 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Sacrey LA, Whishaw IQ (2012) Subsystems of sensory attention for skilled reaching: vision for transport and pre-shaping and somatosensation for grasping, withdrawal and release. Behav Brain Res 231:356–365.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbr.2011.07.031 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Sacrey LA, Alaverdashvili M, Whishaw IQ (2009) Similar hand shaping in reaching-for-food (skilled reaching) in rats and humans provides evidence of homology in release, collection, and manipulation movements. Behav Brain Res 204:153–161.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbr.2009.05.035 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Sacrey LA, Karl JM, Whishaw IQ (2012a) Development of rotational movements, hand shaping, and accuracy in advance and withdrawal for the reach-to-eat movement in human infants aged 6–12 months. Infant Behav Dev 35:543–560.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.infbeh.2012.05.006 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Sacrey LA, Karl JM, Whishaw IQ (2012b) Development of visual and somatosensory attention of the reach-to-eat movement in human infants aged 6 to 12 months. Exp Brain Res 223:121–136.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s0021-012-3246-x CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Schlesinger M, Parisi D (2001) Multimodal control of reaching—simulating the role of tactile feedback. IEEE Trans Evol Comput 5:122–128CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Schum N, Jovanovic B, Schwarzer G (2011) Ten- and twelve-month-olds’ visual anticipation of orientation and size during grasping. J Exp Child Psychol 109:218–231.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jecp.2011.01.007 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Taylor JE, Gozli DG, Chan D, Huffman G, Pratt J (2014) A touchy subject: advancing the modulated visual pathways account of altered vision near the hand. Trans Neurosci 6:1–7.  https://doi.org/10.1515/tnsci-2015-0001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Thelen E, Smith LB (1994) A dynamic systems approach to the development of cognition and action. The MIT Press, MassachusettsGoogle Scholar
  68. Thomas BL, Karl JM, Whishaw IQ (2015) Independent development of the Reach and the Grasp in spontaneous self-touching by human infants in the first 6 months. Front Psychol 8:1526.  https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2014.01526 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Turner EC, Kaas JH (2017) Developmental features of primary sensory cortex and subcortical areas in the prosimian galago (Otolemur garnetti). In: Program No. 285.22. 2017 Neuroscience Meeting Planner. Society for Neuroscience, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  70. Vesia M, Crawford JD (2012) Specialization of reach function in human posterior parietal cortex. Exp Brain Res 221:1–18.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00221-012-3158-9 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Vesia M, Bolton DA, Mochizuki G, Staines WR (2013) Human parietal and primary motor cortical interactions are selectively modulated during the transport and grip formation of goal-directed hand actions. Neuropsychologia 51:410–417.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2012.11.022 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. von Hofsten C (1984) Developmental changes in the organization of prereaching movements. J Mot Behav 23:280–292CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. von Hofsten C, Fazel-Zandy S (1984) Development of visually guided hand orientation in reaching. J Exp Child Psychol 38:208–219CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. von Hofsten C, Rönnqvist (1988) Preparation for grasping an object: a developmental study. J Exp Psychol 14:610–621Google Scholar
  75. Wallace PS, Whishaw IQ (2003) Independent digit movements and precision grip patterns in 1–5-month-old human infants: hand-babbling, including vacuous then self-directed hand and digits movements, precedes targeted reaching. Neuropsychologia 41:1912–1918CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Warner CE, Kwan WC, Bourne JA (2012) The early maturation of visual cortical area MT is dependent on input from the retinorecipient medial portion of the inferior pulvinar. J Neurosci 32:17073–17085CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Wentworth N, Benson JB, Haith MM (2000) The development of infants’ reaches for stationary and moving objects. Child Dev 71:576–601CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Whishaw IQ, Karl JM (2014) The contribution of the reach and the grasp to shaping brain and behaviour. Can J Exp Psychol 68:223–235.  https://doi.org/10.1037/cep0000042 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Whishaw IQ, Karl JM (2018) The evolution of the hand as a tool in feeding behavior: the multiple motor channel theory of reaching. In Bels V (ed) Feeding in vertebrates: anatomy, biomechanics, evolution. Springer, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  80. Whishaw IQ, Karl JM, Humphrey NK (2016) Dissociation of the Reach and the Grasp in the destriate (V1) monkey Helen: a new anatomy for the dual visuomotor channel theory of reaching. Exp Brain Res 234(8):2351–2362.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00221-016-4640-6 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Whishaw IQ, Faraji J, Kuntz J, Mirza Agha B, Patel M, Metz GAS, Mohajerani MH (2017) Organization of the reach and grasp in head-fixed vs freely-moving mice provides support for multiple motor channel theory of neocortical organization. Exp Brain Res 235:1919–1193.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00221-017-4925-4 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. White BL, Castle P, Held R (1964) Observations on the development of visually directed reaching. Child Dev 35:349–364.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8624.1964.tbo5944.x CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Williams JL, Corbetta D (2016) Assessing the impact of movement consequences on the development of early reaching in infancy. Front Psycol 27:587.  https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2016.00587 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Williams JL, Corbetta D, Cobb L (2015a) How perception, action, functional value, and context can shape the development of infant reaching. Mov Sport Sci 89:5–15.  https://doi.org/10.1051/sm/2015005 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Williams JL, Corbetta D, Guan Y (2015b) Learning to reach with “sticky” or “non-sticky” mittens: a tale of developmental trajectories. Infant Behav Dev 38:82–96.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.infbeh.2015.01.001 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Witherington DC (2005) The development of prospective grasping control between 5 and 7 months: a longitudinal study. Infancy 7:143–161CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Woodworth RS (1899) The accuracy of voluntary movement. Psychol Rev 3:1–119Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PsychologyThompson Rivers UniversityKamloopsCanada

Personalised recommendations