Experimental Brain Research

, Volume 236, Issue 3, pp 665–677 | Cite as

Variable impact of tizanidine on the medium latency reflex of upper and lower limbs

  • Isaac KurtzerEmail author
  • Laurent J. BouyerEmail author
  • J. Bouffard
  • A. Jin
  • L. Christiansen
  • J. B. Nielsen
  • S. H. Scott
Research Article


Sudden limb displacement evokes a complex sequence of compensatory muscle activity. Following the short-latency reflex and preceding voluntary reactions is an epoch termed the medium-latency reflex (MLR) that could reflect spinal processing of group II muscle afferents. One way to test this possibility is oral ingestion of tizanidine, an alpha-2 adrenergic agonist that inhibits the interneurons transmitting group II signals onto spinal motor neurons. We examined whether group II afferents contribute to MLR activity throughout the major muscles that span the elbow and shoulder. MLRs of ankle muscles were also tested during walking on the same day, in the same participants as well as during sitting in a different group of subjects. In contrast to previous reports, the ingestion of tizanidine had minimal impact on MLRs of arm or leg muscles during motor actions. A significant decrease in magnitude was observed for 2/16 contrasts in arm muscles and 0/4 contrasts in leg muscles. This discrepancy with previous studies could indicate that tizanidine’s efficacy is altered by subtle changes in protocol or that group II afferents do not substantially contribute to MLRs.


Group II afferents Spinal reflex Feedback Limb control 



The present research was supported by a grant from the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada and a grant from the Canadian Institute of Health Research (CIHR). SHS is supported by a GlaxoSmithKline-CIHR chair in Neuroscience. We wish to thank Kim Moore, Helen Bretzke, and Justin Peterson for technical and logistic support.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Biomedical ScienceNew York Institute of Technology-College of Osteopathic MedicineOld WestburyUSA
  2. 2.Department of RehabilitationUniversité LavalQuebecCanada
  3. 3.Department of Biomedical and Molecular SciencesQueen’s UniversityKingstonCanada
  4. 4.Department of MedicineQueen’s UniversityKingstonCanada
  5. 5.Department of Neuroscience and PharmacologyUniversity of CopenhagenCopenhagenDenmark

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