Experimental Brain Research

, Volume 235, Issue 12, pp 3709–3720 | Cite as

Development of finger force coordination in children

  • Sharon Shaklai
  • Aviva Mimouni-Bloch
  • Moran Levin
  • Jason Friedman
Research Article


Coordination is often observed as body parts moving together. However, when producing force with multiple fingers, the optimal coordination is not to produce similar forces with each finger, but rather for each finger to correct mistakes of other fingers. In this study, we aim to determine whether and how this skill develops in children aged 4–12 years. We measured this sort of coordination using the uncontrolled manifold hypothesis (UCM). We recorded finger forces produced by 60 typically developing children aged between 4 and 12 years in a finger-pressing task. The children controlled the height of an object on a screen by the total amount of force they produced on force sensors. We found that the synergy index, a measure of the relationship between “good” and “bad” variance, increased linearly as a function of age. This improvement was achieved by a selective reduction in “bad” variance rather than an increase in “good” variance. We did not observe differences between males and females, and the synergy index was not able to predict outcomes of upper limb behavioral tests after controlling for age. As children develop between the ages of 4 and 12 years, their ability to produce negative covariation between their finger forces improves, likely related to their improved ability to perform dexterous tasks.


Children Coordination Finger force Prehension Uncontrolled manifold 



The study was partially supported by the Marguerite Stolz Research Fellowship Fund, Sackler Faculty of Medicine Tel Aviv University.

Compliance with ethical standards

Ethical approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki Declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards. Informed assent was obtained from the child participants, and informed consent was obtained from their parents for all participants included in the study.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Child and Youth RehabilitationLoewenstein Rehabilitation HospitalRaananaIsrael
  2. 2.Sackler Faculty of MedicineTel Aviv UniversityTel AvivIsrael
  3. 3.Pediatric Neurology and Development UnitLoewenstein Rehabilitation HospitalRaananaIsrael
  4. 4.Department of Physical Therapy, School of Health Professions, Sackler Faculty of MedicineTel Aviv UniversityTel AvivIsrael
  5. 5.Sagol School of NeuroscienceTel Aviv UniversityTel AvivIsrael

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