The efficacy of airflow and seat vibration on reducing visually induced motion sickness
- 735 Downloads
Visually induced motion sickness (VIMS) is a well-known sensation in virtual environments and simulators, typically characterized by a variety of symptoms such as pallor, sweating, dizziness, fatigue, and/or nausea. Numerous methods to reduce VIMS have been previously introduced; however, a reliable countermeasure is still missing. In the present study, the effect of airflow and seat vibration to alleviate VIMS was investigated. Eighty-two participants were randomly assigned to one of four groups (airflow, vibration, combined airflow and vibration, and control) and then exposed to a 15 min long video of a bicycle ride shot from first-person view. VIMS was measured using the Fast Motion Sickness Scale (FMS) and the Simulator Sickness Questionnaire (SSQ). Results showed that the exposure of airflow significantly reduced VIMS, whereas the presence of seat vibration, in contrast, did not have an impact on VIMS. Additionally, we found that females reported higher FMS scores than males, however, this sex difference was not found in the SSQ scores. Our findings demonstrate that airflow can be an effective and easy-to-apply technique to reduce VIMS in virtual environments and simulators, while vibration applied to the seat is not a successful method.
KeywordsMotion sickness Simulator sickness Vibration Airflow Vection Gender
We like to thank Bruce Haycock and Susan Gorski for their technical help and Ben Leaker for his support with data processing.
- Bos JE (2014) Control of motion and sickness. In: Neuro Control of Movement satellite meeting on Vestibular Processing in Motor ControlGoogle Scholar
- Hecht H, Brown EL, Young LR (2002) Adapting to artificial gravity (AG) at high rotational speeds. In: Warmbein B (ed) Proceedings of "Life in space for life on Earth". 8th European Symposium on Life Sciences Research in Space. 23rd Annual International Gravitational Physiology Meeting, 2–7 June 2002, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden. ESA SP-501, ESA Publications Division, Noordwijk, Netherlands, pp 151–155Google Scholar
- Keshavarz B (2016) Exploring behavioral methods to reduce visually induced motion sickness in virtual environments. In: Lackey S, Shumaker R (eds) Virtual, augmented and mixed reality: 8th International Conference, VAMR 2016, Held as Part of HCI International 2016, Toronto, Canada. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 147–155Google Scholar
- Lawson BD (2015) Motion sickness symptomatology and origins. In: Hale KS, Stanney KM (eds) Handbook of virtual environments: design, implementation, and applications, 2nd edn. CRC Press, London, pp 531–600Google Scholar
- Pradhan CK, Nag PK (1993) Influence of air flow on skin temperature. J Hum Ergol 22:151–161Google Scholar
- Reason JT, Brand JJ (1975) Motion sickness. Academic Press, LondonGoogle Scholar
- Von Gierke HE, Parker DE (1994) Differences in otolith and abdominal viscera graviceptor dynamics: implications for motion sickness and perceived body position. Aviat Space Environ Med 65:747–751Google Scholar