Advertisement

Experimental Brain Research

, Volume 235, Issue 1, pp 15–27 | Cite as

Investigation of timing preparation during response initiation and execution using a startling acoustic stimulus

  • Dana MaslovatEmail author
  • Romeo Chua
  • Ian M. Franks
Research Article

Abstract

The purpose of the current study was to examine the processes involved in the preparation of timing during response initiation and execution through the use of a startling acoustic stimulus (SAS). In Experiment 1, participants performed a delayed response task in which a two key-press movement was to be initiated 200 ms after an imperative signal (IS) with either a short (200 ms) or long (500 ms) interval between key-presses. On selected trials, a SAS was presented to probe the preparation processes associated with the initiation delay and execution of the inter-key interval. The SAS resulted in a significant decrease in the initiation time, which was attributed to a speeding of pacemaker pulses used to time the delay interval, caused by an increased activation due to the SAS. Conversely, the SAS delayed the short inter-key interval, which was attributed to temporary interference with cortical processing. In Experiment 2, participants performed a 500-ms delayed response task involving two key-presses 200 ms apart. In this condition, the SAS resulted in significantly decreased initiation time and a delayed inter-key interval (p = .053). Collectively, these results support a different timeline for the preparation of the delay interval, which is thought to be prepared in advance of the IS, and the inter-key interval, which is thought to be prepared following the IS. This conclusion provides novel information with regard to timing preparation that is consistent with models in which response preparation, initiation, and execution are considered separate and dissociable processes.

Keywords

Delayed response Response preparation Startle Time estimation Timing 

Notes

Acknowledgments

Acknowledgements for this study go to separate Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC) Grant awarded to Ian M. Franks (RGPIN—2014-05172) and Romeo Chua (RGPIN—2014-06051). We would also like to acknowledge the assistance of Laurence Chin for data collection and marking, as well as two anonymous reviewers for their constructive comments on earlier versions of this manuscript.

References

  1. Alouche SR, Sant’Anna GN, Biagioni G, Ribeiro-do-Valle LE (2012) Influence of cueing on the preparation and execution of untrained and trained complex motor responses. Braz J Med Biol Res 45:425–435PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  2. Block RA, Gruber RP (2014) Time perception, attention, and memory: a selective review. Acta Psychol (Amst) 149:129–133. doi: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2013.11.003 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Block RA, Zakay D (1996) Models of psychological time revisited. In: Helfrich H (ed) Time and mind. Eogrefe and Huber Publishers, Gottingen, pp 171–195Google Scholar
  4. Buhusi CV, Meck WH (2005) What makes us tick? Functional and neural mechanisms of interval timing. Nat Rev Neurosci 6:755–765. doi: 10.1038/nrn1764 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Carlsen AN, Mackinnon CD (2010) Motor preparation is modulated by the resolution of the response timing information. Brain Res 1322:38–49CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Carlsen AN, Chua R, Inglis JT, Sanderson DJ, Franks IM (2004) Can prepared responses be stored subcortically? Exp Brain Res 159:301–309CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Carlsen AN, Maslovat D, Lam MY, Chua R, Franks IM (2011) Considerations for the use of a startling acoustic stimulus in studies of motor preparation in humans. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 35:366–376CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Carlsen AN, Maslovat D, Franks IM (2012) Preparation for voluntary movement in healthy and clinical populations: evidence from startle. Clin Neurophysiol 123:21–33CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Eder DN, Elam M, Wallin BG (2009) Sympathetic nerve and cardiovascular responses to auditory startle and prepulse inhibition. Int J Psychophysiol 71:149–155. doi: 10.1016/j.ijpsycho.2008.09.001 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Furubayashi T, Ugawa Y, Terao Y et al (2000) The human hand motor area is transiently suppressed by an unexpected auditory stimulus. Clin Neurophysiol 111:178–183CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Gruber RP, Block RA (2005) Effects of caffeine on prospective duration judgements of various intervals depend on task difficulty. Hum Psychopharmacol 20:275–285. doi: 10.1002/hup.687 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Haith AM, Pakpoor J, Krakauer JW (2016) Independence of movement preparation and movement initiation. J Neurosci 36:3007–3015. doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.3245-15.2016 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Kennefick M, Maslovat D, Chua R, Carlsen AN (2016) Corticospinal excitability is reduced in a simple reaction time task requiring complex timing. Brain Res 1642:319–326. doi: 10.1016/j.brainres.2016.04.006 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Klimovitch G (1977) Startle response and muscular fatigue effects upon fractionated hand grip reaction time. J. Motor Behav 9:285–292CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Kuhn AA, Sharott A, Trottenberg T, Kupsch A, Brown P (2004) Motor cortex inhibition induced by acoustic stimulation. Exp Brain Res 158:120–124. doi: 10.1007/s00221-004-1883-4 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Kumru H, Urra X, Compta Y, Castellote JM, Turbau J, Valls-Solé J (2006) Excitability of subcortical motor circuits in Go/noGo and forced choice reaction time tasks. Neurosci Lett 406:66–70CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Macar F, Vidal F (2004) Event-related potentials as indices of time processing: a review. J. Psychophysiol. 18:89–104CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Magnuson CE, Robin DA, Wright DL (2008) Motor programming when sequencing multiple elements of the same duration. J Motor Behav 40:532–544CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Maslovat D, Carlsen AN, Chua R, Franks IM (2009) Response preparation changes during practice of an asynchronous bimanual movement. Exp Brain Res 195:383–392CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Maslovat D, Hodges NJ, Chua R, Franks IM (2011) Motor preparation and the effects of practice: evidence from startle. Behav Neurosci 125:226–240CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Maslovat D, Carlsen AN, Franks IM (2012) Subcortical motor circuit excitability during simple and choice reaction time. Behav Neurosci 126:499–503CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Maslovat D, Klapp ST, Jagacinski RJ, Franks IM (2014) Control of response timing occurs during the simple reaction time interval but on-line for choice reaction time. J Exp Psychol Hum Percept Perform 40:2005–2021CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Maslovat D, Chua R, Carlsen AN, May C, Forgaard CJ, Franks IM (2015) A startling acoustic stimulus interferes with upcoming motor preparation: evidence for a startle refractory period. Acta Psychol (Amst) 158:36–42. doi: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2015.04.003 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Maslovat D, Chua R, Klapp ST, Franks IM (2016) Independent planning of timing and sequencing for complex motor movements. J Exp Psychol Hum Percept Perform 42:1158–1172. doi: 10.1037/xhp0000220 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Matell MS, Meck WH (2000) Neuropsychological mechanisms of interval timing behavior. BioEssays 22:94–103. doi: 10.1002/(SICI)1521-1878(200001)22:1<94:AID-BIES14>3.0.CO;2-E CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Meck WH (1996) Neuropharmacology of timing and time perception. Brain Res Cogn Brain Res 3:227–242CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Merchant H, Harrington DL, Meck WH (2013) Neural basis of the perception and estimation of time. Annu Rev Neurosci 36:313–336. doi: 10.1146/annurev-neuro-062012-170349 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Penton-Voak IS, Edwards H, Percival A, Wearden JH (1996) Speeding up an internal clock in humans? Effects of click trains on subjective duration. J Exp Psychol Anim Behav Process 22:307–320CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Taatgen NA, van Rijn H, Anderson J (2007) An integrated theory of prospective time interval estimation: the role of cognition, attention, and learning. Psychol Rev 114:577–598. doi: 10.1037/0033-295X.114.3.577 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Thackray RI, Touchstone RM (1970) Recovery of motor performance following startle. Percept Mot Skills 30:279–292CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Valls-Solé J, Rothwell JC, Goulart F, Cossu G, Munoz E (1999) Patterned ballistic movements triggered by a startle in healthy humans. J Physiol 516(3):931–938CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  32. Valls-Solé J, Kumru H, Kofler M (2008) Interaction between startle and voluntary reactions in humans. Exp Brain Res 187:497–507CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Verwey WB, Shea CH, Wright DL (2015) A cognitive framework for explaining serial processing and sequence execution strategies. Psychon Bull Rev 22:54–77CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Vlasak M (1969) Effect of startle stimuli on performance. Aerosp Med 40:124–128PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Vorberg D, Wing AM (1996) Modeling variability and dependence in timing. In: Keele S, Heuer H (eds) Handbook of perception and action, vol 2. Academic Press, New York, pp 181–262Google Scholar
  36. Wing AM, Kristofferson AB (1973) The timing of interresponse intervals. Percept Psychophys 13:455–460CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of KinesiologyUniversity of British ColumbiaVancouverCanada

Personalised recommendations