Advertisement

Experimental Brain Research

, Volume 234, Issue 1, pp 141–149 | Cite as

Contrasting phase effects on vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (VEMPs) produced by air- and bone-conducted stimuli

  • Sendhil Govender
  • Sally M. Rosengren
  • Danielle L. Dennis
  • Louis J. Z. Lim
  • James G. ColebatchEmail author
Research Article

Abstract

We have studied the effects of stimulus phase on the latency and amplitude of cVEMPs and oVEMPs by reanalysing data from Lim et al. (Exp Brain Res 224:437–445, 2013) in which alternating phase was used. Responses for the different initial stimulus phase, either positive or negative, were separated and reaveraged. We found that the phase (compressive or rarefactive) of AC 500-Hz stimuli had no significant effect on either latency or amplitude of the responses. Conversely, phase (positive = motor towards subjects) did alter the effects of BC 500-Hz stimulation. For cVEMPs, phase consistently affected initial latency with earlier responses for positive stimuli, while, for stimulation at the mastoid, negative onset phase gave larger responses. For the oVEMP, effects were different for the two sites of BC stimulation. At the forehead, the response appeared to invert, whereas at the mastoid there appeared to be a delay of the initial response. Related to this, the effect of phase for the two sites was opposite: at the mastoid, positive responses were earlier but negative were larger (particularly for long stimuli). At the forehead, the effect was the opposite: negative onset stimuli evoked earlier responses, whereas positive onset evoked larger responses. These findings indicate a basic difference in the way that AC and BC stimuli activate vestibular receptors and also indicate that the effects of phase of BC stimulation depend on location. Stimulus alternation does little to affect the response to AC stimulation but obscures the effects of BC stimuli, particularly for the oVEMP.

Keywords

oVEMP VEMP Polarity Duration Phase 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This work was supported by the Garnett Passe and Rodney Williams Memorial Foundation and the National Health and Medical Research Council of Australia (1020577).

References

  1. Cai KY, Rosengren SM, Colebatch JG (2011) Cervical and ocular vestibular evoked myogenic potentials are sensitive to stimulus phase. Audiol Neurootol 16:277–288PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Colebatch JG, Halmagyi GM, Skuse NF (1994) Myogenic potentials generated by a click-evoked vestibulocollic reflex. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 57:190–197PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Colebatch JG, Dennis DL, Govender S, Chen P, Todd NPM (2014) Recruitment properties and significance of short latency reflexes in neck and eye muscles evoked by brief linear head accelerations. Exp Brain Res 232:2977–2988PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Fernández C, Goldberg JM (1976) Physiology of peripheral neurons innervating otolith organs of the squirrel monkey. I. Response to static tilts and to long-duration centrifugal force. J Neurophysiol 39:970–984PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Goldberg JM, Fernández C (1975) Vestibular mechanisms. Annu Rev Physiol 37:129–162PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Gorga MP, Kaminski JR, Beauchaine KL (1991) Effects of stimulus phase on the latency of the auditory brainstem response. J Am Acad Audiol 2:1–6PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Govender S, Dennis DL, Colebatch JG (2015) Vestibular evoked myogenic potentials evoked by air- and bone-conducted stimuli in vestibular neuritis. Clin Neurophysiol. doi: 10.1016/j.clinph.2014.12.029 Google Scholar
  8. Hughes JR, Fino J, Gagnon L (1981) The importance of phase of stimulus and the reference recording electrode in brain stem auditory evoked potentials. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 51:611–623PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Iwasaki S, Smulders YE, Burgess AM, McGarvie LA, Macdougall HG, Halmagyi GM, Curthoys IS (2008) Ocular vestibular evoked myogenic potentials to bone conducted vibration of the midline forehead at Fz in healthy subjects. Clin Neurophysiol 119:2135–2147PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Jombik P, Spodniak P, Bahyl V (2011) Direction-dependent excitatory and inhibitory ocular vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials (oVEMPs) produced by oppositely directed accelerations along the midsagittal axis of the head. Exp Brain Res 211:251–263PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Lim LJ, Dennis DL, Govender S, Colebatch JG (2013) Differential effects of duration for ocular and cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potentials evoked by air- and bone-conducted stimuli. Exp Brain Res 224:437–445PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. McCue MP, Guinan JJ Jr (1994) Acoustically responsive fibers in the vestibular nerve of the cat. J Neurosci 14:6058–6070PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Murofushi T, Curthoys IS (1997) Physiological and anatomical study of click-sensitive primary vestibular afferents in the guinea pig. Acta Otolaryngol 117:66–72PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Orlando MS, Folsom RC (1995) The effects of reversing the polarity of frequency-limited single-cycle stimuli on the human auditory brain stem response. Ear Hear 16:311–320PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Ornitz EM, Walter DO (1975) The effect of sound pressure waveform on human brain stem auditory evoked responses. Brain Res 92:490–498PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Rosengren SM, Todd NP, Colebatch JG (2005) Vestibular-evoked extraocular potentials produced by stimulation with bone-conducted sound. Clin Neurophysiol 116:1938–1948PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Rosengren SM, Todd NP, Colebatch JG (2009) Vestibular evoked myogenic potentials evoked by brief interaural head acceleration: properties and possible origin. J Appl Physiol 107:841–852PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Todd NP, Rosengren SM, Aw ST, Colebatch JG (2007) Ocular vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (OVEMPs) produced by air- and bone-conducted sound. Clin Neurophysiol 118:381–390PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Todd NP, Rosengren SM, Colebatch JG (2008) Ocular vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (OVEMPs) produced by impulsive transmastoid accelerations. Clin Neurophysiol 119:1638–1651PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Todd NP, Rosengren SM, Colebatch JG (2009) A utricular origin of frequency tuning to low-frequency vibration in the human vestibular system? Neurosci Lett 451:175–180PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Todd NP, Bell SL, Paillard AC, Griffin MJ (2012) Contributions of ocular vestibular myogenic evoked potentials and the electrooculogram to periocular potentials produced by whole-body vibration. J Appl Physiol 113:1613–1623PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Westin M, Brantberg K (2014) Mastoid and vertex low-frequency vibration-induced oVEMP in relation to medially directed acceleration of the labyrinth. Clin Neurophysiol 125:615–620PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Young ED, Fernández C, Goldberg JM (1977) Responses of squirrel monkey vestibular neurons to audio-frequency sound and head vibration. Acta Otolaryngol 84:352–360PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sendhil Govender
    • 1
  • Sally M. Rosengren
    • 2
    • 3
  • Danielle L. Dennis
    • 1
  • Louis J. Z. Lim
    • 1
  • James G. Colebatch
    • 1
    • 4
    Email author
  1. 1.Prince of Wales Clinical School and Neuroscience Research AustraliaUniversity of New South WalesSydneyAustralia
  2. 2.Department of NeurologyRoyal Prince Alfred HospitalSydneyAustralia
  3. 3.Central Clinical SchoolUniversity of SydneySydneyAustralia
  4. 4.Institute of Neurological SciencesPrince of Wales HospitalSydneyAustralia

Personalised recommendations