Experimental Brain Research

, Volume 233, Issue 8, pp 2311–2321 | Cite as

The plausibility of visual information for hand ownership modulates multisensory synchrony perception

Research Article

Abstract

We are frequently changing the position of our bodies and body parts within complex environments. How does the brain keep track of one’s own body? Current models of body ownership state that visual body ownership cues such as viewed object form and orientation are combined with multisensory information to correctly identify one’s own body, estimate its current location and evoke an experience of body ownership. Within this framework, it may be possible that the brain relies on a separate perceptual analysis of body ownership cues (e.g. form, orientation, multisensory synchrony). Alternatively, these cues may interact in earlier stages of perceptual processing—visually derived body form and orientation cues may, for example, directly modulate temporal synchrony perception. The aim of the present study was to distinguish between these two alternatives. We employed a virtual hand set-up and psychophysical methods. In a two-interval force-choice task, participants were asked to detect temporal delays between executed index finger movements and observed movements. We found that body-specifying cues interact in perceptual processing. Specifically, we show that plausible visual information (both form and orientation) for one’s own body led to significantly better detection performance for small multisensory asynchronies compared to implausible visual information. We suggest that this perceptual modulation when visual information plausible for one’s own body is present is a consequence of body-specific sensory predictions.

Keywords

Multisensory perception Temporal synchrony perception Virtual hand Body representations Body ownership Sensory predictions 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This work was supported by a Macquarie University Research Development Grant (9201200328). We thank Kim Weldon and Jade Jackson for assistance running participants.

References

  1. Apps MA, Tsakiris M (2013) The free-energy self: a predictive coding account of self-recognition. Neurosci Biobeh Rev 41:85–97CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Botvinick M, Cohen J (1998) Rubber hands ‘feel’ touch that eyes see. Nature 391(6669):756PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Brozzoli C, Gentile G, Petkova VI, Ehrsson HH (2011) FMRI adaptation reveals a cortical mechanism for the coding of space near the hand. J Neurosci 31(24):9023–9031PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bubic A, von Cramon DY, Schubotz RI (2010) Prediction, cognition and the brain. Front Hum Neurosci 4:25PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. di Pellegrino G, Ladavas E, Farne A (1997) Seeing where your hands are. Nature 388(6644):730PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Ehrsson HH (2012) The concept of body ownership and its relation to multisensory integration. In: Stein BE (ed) The new handbook of multisensory processing. MIT Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  7. Ehrsson HH, Spence C, Passingham RE (2004) That’s my hand! Activity in premotor cortex reflects feeling of ownership of a limb. Science 305(5685):875–877PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Farne A, Pavani F, Meneghello F, Ladavas E (2000) Left tactile extinction following visual stimulation of a rubber hand. Brain 123(Pt 11):2350–2360PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Folegatti A, de Vignemont F, Pavani F, Rossetti Y, Farne A (2009) Losing one’s hand: visual-proprioceptive conflict affects touch perception. PLoS ONE 4(9):e6920PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Friston K (2010) The free-energy principle: a unified brain theory? Nat Rev Neurosci 11(2):127–138PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Gentile G, Petkova VI, Ehrsson HH (2011) Integration of visual and tactile signals from the hand in the human brain: an FMRI study. J Neurophysiol 105(2):910–922PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Graziano MS (1999) Where is my arm? The relative role of vision and proprioception in the neuronal representation of limb position. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 96(18):10418–10421PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Graziano MS, Hu XT, Gross CG (1997) Visuospatial properties of ventral premotor cortex. J Neurophysiol 77(5):2268–2292PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Graziano MS, Gross CG, Taylor CSR, Moore T (2004) A system of multimodal areas in the primate brain. In: Spence C, Driver J (eds) Crossmodal space and crossmodal attention. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp 51–67CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Holle H, McLatchie N, Maurer S, Ward J (2011) Proprioceptive drift without illusions of ownership for rotated hands in the “rubber hand illusion” paradigm. Cognit Neurosci 2(3–4):171–178CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Holmes NP, Snijders HJ, Spence C (2006) Reaching with alien limbs: visual exposure to prosthetic hands in a mirror biases proprioception without accompanying illusions of ownership. Percept Psychophys 68(4):685–701PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Hoover AE, Harris LR (2012) Detecting delay in visual feedback of an action as a monitor of self recognition. Exp Brain Res 222(4):389–397PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Hoover AE, Harris LR (2015) The role of the viewpoint on body ownership. Exp Brain Res 233(4):1053–1060PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Hyvarinen J (1981) Regional distribution of functions in parietal association area 7 of the monkey. Brain Res 206(2):287–303PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Ide M (2013) The effect of anatomical plausibility of hand angle on the rubber-hand illusion. Perception 42(1):103–111PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Kalckert A, Ehrsson HH (2012) Moving a rubber hand that feels like your own: a dissociation of ownership and agency. Front Hum Neurosci 6:40PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Kalckert A, Ehrsson HH (2014) The moving rubber hand illusion revisited: comparing movements and visuotactile stimulation to induce illusory ownership. Conscious Cogn 26:117–132PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Keetels M, Vroomen J (2011) No effect of synesthetic congruency on temporal ventriloquism. Atten Percept Psychophys 73(1):209–218PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Leube DT, Knoblich G, Erb M, Kircher TT (2003) Observing one’s hand become anarchic: an fMRI study of action identification. Conscious Cogn 12(4):597–608PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Longo MR, Cardozo S, Haggard P (2008) Visual enhancement of touch and the bodily self. Conscious Cogn 17(4):1181–1191PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. MacDonald PA, Paus T (2003) The role of parietal cortex in awareness of self-generated movements: a transcranial magnetic stimulation study. Cereb Cortex 13(9):962–967PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Makin TR, Holmes NP, Zohary E (2007) Is that near my hand? Multisensory representation of peripersonal space in human intraparietal sulcus. J Neurosci 27(4):731–740PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Makin TR, Holmes NP, Ehrsson HH (2008) On the other hand: dummy hands and peripersonal space. Behav Brain Res 191(1):1–10PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Parise C, Spence C (2008) Synesthetic congruency modulates the temporal ventriloquism effect. Neurosci Lett 442(3):257–261PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Parise CV, Spence C (2009) ‘When birds of a feather flock together’: synesthetic correspondences modulate audiovisual integration in non-synesthetes. PLoS ONE 4(5):e5664PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Pavani F, Spence C, Driver J (2000) Visual capture of touch: out-of-the-body experiences with rubber gloves. Psychol Sci 11(5):353–359PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Rizzolatti G, Scandolara C, Matelli M, Gentilucci M (1981) Afferent properties of periarcuate neurons in macaque monkeys. II. Visual responses. Behav Brain Res 2(2):147–163PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Salomon R, Malach R, Lamy D (2009) Involvement of the intrinsic/default system in movement-related self recognition. PLoS ONE 4(10):e7527PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Seth AK (2013) Interoceptive inference, emotion, and the embodied self. Trends Cogn Sci 17(11):565–573PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Shimada S, Qi Y, Hiraki K (2010) Detection of visual feedback delay in active and passive self-body movements. [Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov’t]. Exp Brain Res 201(2):359–364PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Spence C (2007) Audiovisual multisensory integration. Acoust Sci Technol 28(2):61–70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Tsakiris M (2010) My body in the brain: a neurocognitive model of body-ownership. Neuropsychologia 48(3):703–712PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Tsakiris M, Haggard P, Franck N, Mainy N, Sirigu A (2005) A specific role for efferent information in self-recognition. Cognition 96(3):215–231PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Tsakiris M, Carpenter L, James D, Fotopoulou A (2010) Hands only illusion: multisensory integration elicits sense of ownership for body parts but not for non-corporeal objects. Exp Brain Res 204(3):343–352PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Vatakis A, Spence C (2007) Crossmodal binding: evaluating the “unity assumption” using audiovisual speech stimuli. Percept Psychophys 69:744–756PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Vatakis A, Spence C (2008) Evaluating the influence of the ‘unity assumption’ on the temporal perception of realistic audiovisual stimuli. Acta Psychol 127(1):12–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Vatakis A, Ghazanfar AA, Spence C (2008) Facilitation of multisensory integration by the “unity effect” reveals that speech is special. J Vis 8(9):14 1–11Google Scholar
  43. Welch RB, Warren DH (1980) Immediate perceptual response to intersensory discrepancy. Psychol Bull 88(3):638–667PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Wichmann FA, Hill NJ (2001) The psychometric function: I. Fitting, sampling, and goodness of fit. Percept Psychophys 63(8):1293–1313PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Zopf R, Savage G, Williams MA (2010) Crossmodal congruency measures of lateral distance effects on the rubber hand illusion. Neuropsychologia 48(3):713–725PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Regine Zopf
    • 1
    • 2
  • Jason Friedman
    • 3
  • Mark A. Williams
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Perception in Action Research Centre and Department of Cognitive Science, Faculty of Human SciencesMacquarie UniversitySydneyAustralia
  2. 2.ARC Centre of Excellence in Cognition and its DisordersMacquarie UniversitySydneyAustralia
  3. 3.Department of Physical TherapyTel Aviv UniversityTel AvivIsrael

Personalised recommendations