Advertisement

Experimental Brain Research

, Volume 232, Issue 10, pp 3101–3109 | Cite as

Change of a motor synergy for dampening hand vibration depending on a task difficulty

  • Shunta TogoEmail author
  • Takahiro Kagawa
  • Yoji Uno
Research Article

Abstract

The present study investigated the relationship between the number of usable degrees of freedom (DOFs) and joint coordination during a human-dampening hand vibration task. Participants stood on a platform generating an anterior–posterior directional oscillation and held a water-filled cup. Their usable DOFs were changed under the following conditions of limb constraint: (1) no constraint; (2) ankle constrained; and (3) ankle–knee constrained. Kinematic whole-body data were recorded using a three-dimensional position measurement system. The jerk of each body part was evaluated as an index of oscillation intensity. To quantify joint coordination, an uncontrolled manifold (UCM) analysis was applied and the variance of joints related to hand jerk divided into two components: a UCM component that did not affect hand jerk and an orthogonal (ORT) component that directly affected hand jerk. The results showed that hand jerk when the task used a cup filled with water was significantly smaller than when a cup containing stones was used, regardless of limb constraint condition. Thus, participants dampened their hand vibration utilizing usable joint DOFs. According to UCM analysis, increasing the oscillation velocity and the decrease in usable DOFs by the limb constraints led to an increase of total variance of the joints and the UCM component, indicating that a synergy-dampening hand vibration was enhanced. These results show that the variance of usable joint DOFs is more fitted to the UCM subspace when the joints are varied by increasing the velocity and limb constraints and suggest that humans adopt enhanced synergies to achieve more difficult tasks.

Keywords

Synergy Uncontrolled manifold analysis Joint coordination Vibration Redundancy Degrees of freedom 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This research was supported by the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) grant-in-aid for JSPS Fellows 243758 and grant-in-aid for Scientific Research (B) 21300092 and (C) 23560526.

References

  1. Adamovich SV, Archambault PS, Ghafouri M, Levin MF, Poizner H, Feldman AG (2001) Hand trajectory invariance in reaching movements involving the trunk. Exp Brain Res 138:288–303PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Auyang AG, Yen JT, Chang YH (2009) Neuromechanical stabilization of leg length and orientation through interjoint compensation during human hopping. Exp Brain Res 192:253–264PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bernstein NA (1967) The coordination and regulation of movements. Pergamon, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  4. Bizzi E, Accornero N, Chapple W, Hogan N (1984) Posture control and trajectory formation during arm movement. J Neurosci 4:2738–2744PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Black DP, Smith BA, Wu J, Ulrich BD (2007) Uncontrolled manifold analysis of segmental angle variability during walking: preadolescents with and without down syndrome. Exp Brain Res 183:511–521PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. dos Santos AD, Slomka K, Zatsiorsky VM, Latash ML (2007) Muscle modes and synergies during voluntary body sway. Exp Brain Res 179:533–550CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Fukson OI, Berkinblit MB, Feldman AG (1980) The spinal frog takes into account the scheme of its body during the wiping reflex. Science 209:1261–1263PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Hodges NJ, Hayes S, Horn RR, Williams AM (2005) Changes in coordination, control and outcome as a result of extended practice on a novel motor skill. Ergonomics 48:1672–1685PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Ko YG, Challis JH, Newell KM (2003) Learning to coordinate redundant degrees of freedom in a dynamic balance task. Hum Mov Sci 22:47–66PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Krishnamoorthy V, Latash ML, Scholz JP, Zatsiorsky VM (2003) Muscle synergies during shifts of the center of pressure by standing persons. Exp Brain Res 152:281–292PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Latash ML (2010) Stages in learning motor synergies: a view based on the equilibrium-point hypothesis. Hum Mov Sci 29:642–654PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  12. Latash ML, Scholz JP, Schöner G (2002) Motor control strategies revealed in the structure of motor variability. Exerc Sport Sci Rev 30:26–31PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Latash ML, Scholz JP, Schöner G (2007) Toward a new theory of motor synergies. Mot Control 11:276–308Google Scholar
  14. Morasso P, Casadio M, Mohan V, Zenzeri J (2010) A neural mechanism of synergy formation for whole body reaching. Biol Cybern 102:45–55PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Newell KM, Vaillancourt DE (2001) Dimensional change in motor learning. Hum Mov Sci 20:695–715PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Newell KM, Broderick MP, Deutsch KM, Slifkin AB (2003) Task goals and change in dynamical degrees of freedom with motor learning. J Exp Psychol Hum Percept Perform 29:379–387PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Nishii J, Hashizume Y, Kaichida S, Suenaga H, Tanaka Y (2012) Constraint and exploitation of redundant degrees of freedom during walking. Rob Auton Syst 60:679–684CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Robert T, Zatsiorsky VM, Latash ML (2008) Multi-muscle synergies in an unusual postural task: quick shear force production. Exp Brain Res 187:237–253PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  19. Robert T, Bennett BC, Russell SD, Zirker CA, Abel MF (2009) Angular momentum synergies during walking. Exp Brain Res 197:185–197PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Scholz JP, Schöner G (1999) The uncontrolled manifold concept: identifying control variables for a functional task. Exp Brain Res 126:289–306PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Scholz JP, Schöner G, Hsu WL, Jeka JJ, Horak F, Martin V (2007) Motor equivalent control of the center of mass in response to support surface perturbations. Exp Brain Res 180:163–179PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Togo S, Kagawa T, Uno Y (2012) Motor synergies for dampening hand vibration during human walking. Exp Brain Res 216:81–90PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Tseng YW, Scholz JP, Schöner G, Hotchkiss L (2003) Effect of accuracy constraint on joint coordination during pointing movements. Exp Brain Res 149:276–288PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Verrel J (2010) Distributional properties and variance-stabilizing transformations for measures of uncontrolled manifold effects. J Neurosci Methods 191:166–170PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Wu J, McKay S, Angulo-Barroso R (2009) Center of mass control and multi-segment coordination in children during quiet stance. Exp Brain Res 196:329–339PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Yang JF, Scholz JP, Latash ML (2007) The role of kinematic redundancy in adaptation of reaching. Exp Brain Res 176:54–69PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  27. Yen JT, Auyang AG, Chang YH (2009) Joint-level kinetic redundancy is exploited to control limb-level forces during human hopping. Exp Brain Res 196:439–451PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Graduate School of EngineeringNagoya UniversityNagoyaJapan
  2. 2.Japan Society for the Promotion of ScienceTokyoJapan

Personalised recommendations