Advertisement

Experimental Brain Research

, Volume 232, Issue 2, pp 609–618 | Cite as

The background is remapped across saccades

  • Oakyoon Cha
  • Sang Chul Chong
Research Article

Abstract

Physiological studies have found that neurons prepare for impending eye movements, showing anticipatory responses to stimuli presented at the location of the post-saccadic receptive fields (RFs) (Wurtz in Vis Res 48:2070–2089, 2008). These studies proposed that visual neurons with shifting RFs prepared for the stimuli they would process after an impending saccade. Additionally, psychophysical studies have shown behavioral consequences of those anticipatory responses, including the transfer of aftereffects (Melcher in Nat Neurosci 10:903–907, 2007) and the remapping of attention (Rolfs et al. in Nat Neurosci 14:252–258, 2011). As the physiological studies proposed, the shifting RF mechanism explains the transfer of aftereffects. Recently, a new mechanism based on activation transfer via a saliency map was proposed, which accounted for the remapping of attention (Cavanagh et al. in Trends Cogn Sci 14:147–153, 2010). We hypothesized that there would be different aspects of the remapping corresponding to these different neural mechanisms. This study found that the information in the background was remapped to a similar extent as the figure, provided that the visual context remained stable. We manipulated the status of the figure and the ground in the saliency map and showed that the manipulation modulated the remapping of the figure and the ground in different ways. These results suggest that the visual system has an ability to remap the background as well as the figure, but lacks the ability to modulate the remapping of the background based on the visual context, and that different neural mechanisms might work together to maintain visual stability across saccades.

Keywords

Saccadic remapping Saccadic eye movements Tilt aftereffects Orientation-specific adaptation Shifting receptive field Saliency map 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This research was supported by the Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF), funded by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology (2009-0089090).

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

References

  1. Batista AP, Buneo CA, Snyder LH, Andersen RA (1999) Reach plans in eye-centered coordinates. Science 285:257–260PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Biber U, Ilg UJ (2011) Visual stability and the motion aftereffect: a psychophysical study revealing spatial updating. PLoS ONE 6:1–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Brainard DH (1997) The psychophysics toolbox. Spat Vis 10:433–436PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Castiello U, Umiltà C (1990) Size of the attentional focus and efficiency of processing. Acta Psychol 73:195–209CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Cavanagh P, Hunt AR, Afraz A, Rolfs M (2010) Visual stability based on remapping of attention pointers. Trends Cogn Sci 14:147–153PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Colby CL, Duhamel JR, Goldberg ME (1996) Visual, presaccadic, and cognitive activation of single neurons in monkey lateral intraparietal area. J Neurophysiol 76:2841–2852PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Crapse TB, Sommer MA (2012) Frontal eye field neurons assess visual stability across saccades. J Neurosci 32:2835–2845PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Duhamel JR, Colby CL, Goldberg ME (1992) The updating of the representation of visual space in parietal cortex by intended eye movements. Science 255:90–92PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Golomb JD, Chun MM, Mazer JA (2008) The native coordinate system of spatial attention is retinotopic. J Neurosci 28:10654–10662PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Golomb JD, Nguyen-Phuc AY, Mazer JA, McCarthy G, Chun MM (2010) Attentional facilitation throughout human visual cortex lingers in retinotopic coordinates after eye movements. J Neurosci 30:10493–10506PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Gottlieb J (2007) From thought to action: the parietal cortex as a bridge between perception, action, and cognition. Neuron 53:9–16PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. He S, MacLeod DIA (2001) Orientation-selective adaptation and tilt after-effect from invisible patterns. Nature 411:473–476PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Heiser LM, Colby CL (2006) Spatial updating in area LIP is independent of saccade direction. J Neurophysiol 95:2751–2767PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Hupé JM, James AC, Payne BR, Lomber SG, Girard P, Bullier J (1998) Cortical feedback improves discrimination between figure and background by V1, V2 and V3 neurons. Nature 394:784–787PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Joiner WM, Cavanaugh J, Wurtz RH (2011) Modulation of shifting receptive field activity in frontal eye field by visual salience. J Neurophysiol 106:1179–1190PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Knapen T, Rolfs M, Wexler M, Cavanagh P (2010) The reference frame of the tilt aftereffect. J Vis 10(1):1–13Google Scholar
  17. Kusunoki M, Goldberg ME (2003) The time course of perisaccadic receptive field shifts in the lateral intraparietal area of the monkey. J Neurophysiol 89:1519–1527PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Lappe M, Kuhlmann S, Oerke B, Kaiser M (2006) The fate of object features during perisaccadic mislocalization. J Vis 6:1282–1293PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Luo G, Garaas T, Pomplun M, Peli E (2010) Inconsistency between peri-saccadic mislocalization and compression: evidence for separate “what” and “where” visual systems. J Vis 10:1–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Melcher D (2007) Predictive remapping of visual features precedes saccadic eye movements. Nat Neurosci 10:903–907PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Melcher D (2008) Dynamic, object-based remapping of visual features in trans-saccadic perception. J Vis 8:1–17PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Melcher D (2009) Selective attention and the active remapping of object features in trans-saccadic perception. Vis Res 49:1249–1255PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Michalewicz Z, Nazhiyath G, Michalewicz M (1996) A note on usefulness of geometrical crossover for numerical optimization problems. In: Proc of the 5th Ann Conf on Evolutionary Programming. MIT Press, Cambridge, pp 305–312Google Scholar
  24. Nakamura K, Colby CL (2002) Updating of the visual representation in monkey striate and extrastriate cortex during saccades. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 99:4026–4031PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Pelli DG (1997) The VideoToolbox software for visual psychophysics: transforming numbers into movies. Spat Vis 10:437–442PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Qiu FT, Sugihara T, von der Heydt R (2007) Figure-ground mechanisms provide structure for selective attention. Nat Neurosci 10:1492–1499PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Rolfs M, Jonikaitis D, Deubel H, Cavanagh P (2011) Predictive remapping of attention across eye movements. Nat Neurosci 14:252–258PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Sommer MA, Wurtz RH (2006) Influence of the thalamus on spatial visual processing in frontal cortex. Nature 444:374–377PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Tolias AS, Moore T, Smirnakis SM, Tehovnik EJ, Siapas AG, Schiller PH (2001) Eye movements modulate visual receptive fields of V4 neurons. Neuron 29:757–767PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Umeno MM, Goldberg ME (1997) Spatial processing in the monkey frontal eye field. I. Predictive visual responses. J Neurophysiol 78:1373–1383PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Umeno MM, Goldberg ME (2001) Spatial processing in the monkey frontal eye field. II. Memory responses. J Neurophysiol 86:2344–2352PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Walker MF, Fitzgibbon EJ, Goldberg ME (1995) Neurons in the monkey superior colliculus predict the visual result of impending saccadic eye movements. J Neurophysiol 73:1988–2003PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Watson AB, Pelli DG (1983) QUEST: a Bayesian adaptive psychometric method. Percept Psychophys 33:114–120CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Wichmann FA, Hill NJ (2001) The psychometric function: II. Bootstrap-based confidence intervals and sampling. Percept Psychophys 63(8):1314–1329Google Scholar
  35. Wurtz RH (2008) Neuronal mechanisms of visual stability. Vis Res 48:2070–2089PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Zirnsak M, Gerhards RG, Kiani R, Lappe M, Hamker FH (2011) Anticipatory saccade target processing and the presaccadic transfer of visual features. J Neurosci 31:17887–17891PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Graduate Program in Cognitive ScienceYonsei UniversitySeoulKorea
  2. 2.Department of PsychologyYonsei UniversitySeoulKorea

Personalised recommendations