Experimental Brain Research

, Volume 230, Issue 3, pp 333–343 | Cite as

Athletes and novices are differently capable to recognize feint and non-feint actions

  • Iris Güldenpenning
  • Andreas Steinke
  • Dirk Koester
  • Thomas Schack
Research Article

Abstract

Fast motor reactions in sports often require the ability to predict the intended action of an opponent as early as possible. Therefore, the present paper investigates whether beach volleyball athletes are able to recognize different attack hits (i.e. smash vs. poke shot) at an earlier stage of the movement than novices. Beach volleyball athletes and novices took part in a response priming experiment (Experiment 1). Participants had to decide whether a presented target picture depicts a smash or a poke shot. Importantly, the preceding prime pictures were taken from different stages of the movements varying between the jump (beginning of the movements) and the hand-ball contact (end of the movements). Diverging response congruency effects was found for athletes and novices. Athletes were able to recognize at an earlier movement stage than novices which kind of attack hit was shown at the prime picture. It is suggested that athletes might implicitly read movement-related patterns in the depicted athlete’s body posture (e.g. the angle of the elbow). In contrast, novices might use information which is easier to access (e.g. hand-ball relation). In a second experiment, novice participants received a visual training to test for a potential perceptual source of the priming effects. Notably, participants did not improve their ability to differentiate the volleyball techniques, indicating that a better recognition performance in athletes is based on motor and not on perceptual expertise.

Keywords

Action representation Motor expertise Priming Feint action 

Notes

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

References

  1. Abernethy B, Russell DG (1984) Advance cue utilisation by skilled cricket batsmen. Aust J Sci Med Sport 16(2):2–10Google Scholar
  2. Abernethy B, Russell DG (1987) Expert-novice differences in an applied selective attention task. J Sport Psychol 9(4):326–345Google Scholar
  3. Abernethy B, Schorer J, Jackson RC, Hagemann N (2012) Perceptual training methods compared: the relative efficacy of different approaches to enhancing sport-specific anticipation. J Exp Psychol-Appl 18(2):143–153. doi:10.1037/A0028452 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Aglioti SM, Cesari P, Romani M, Urgesi C (2008) Action anticipation and motor resonance in elite basketball players. Nat Neurosci 11(9):1109–1116PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bläsing B, Tenenbaum G, Schack T (2009) The cognitive structure of movements in classical dance. Psychol Sport Exerc 10(3):350–360CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Calvo-Merino B, Grezes J, Glaser DE, Passingham RE, Haggard P (2006) Seeing or doing? Influence of visual and motor familiarity in action observation. Curr Biol 16(19):1905–1910PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Canal-Bruland R, Schmidt M (2009) Response bias in judging deceptive movements. Acta Psychol 130(3):235–240CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Canal-Bruland R, van der Kamp J, van Kesteren J (2010) An examination of motor and perceptual contributions to the recognition of deception from others’ actions. Hum Mov Sci 29(1):94–102PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Casile A, Giese MA (2006) Nonvisual motor training influences biological motion perception. Curr Biol 16(1):69–74PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Dehaene S, Naccache L, Le Clec’H G, Koechlin E, Mueller M, Dehaene-Lambertz G, van de Moortele PF, Le Bihan D (1998) Imaging unconscious semantic priming. Nature 395(6702):597–600PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Güldenpenning I, Koester D, Kunde W, Weigelt M, Schack T (2011) Motor expertise modulates the unconscious processing of human body postures. Exp Brain Res 213(4):383–391PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Güldenpenning I, Kunde W, Weigelt M, Schack T (2012) Priming of future states in complex motor skills. Exp Psychol 59(5):286–294. doi:10.1027/1618-3169/A000156 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Hagemann N, Strauss B, Canal-Bruland R (2006) Training perceptual skill by orienting visual attention. J Sport Exerc Psychol 28(2):143–158Google Scholar
  14. Huys R, Canal-Bruland R, Hagemann N, Beek PJ, Smeeton NJ, Williams AM (2009) Global information pickup underpins anticipation of tennis shot direction. J Mot Behav 41(2):158–170PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Jackson RC, Warren S, Abernethy B (2006) Anticipation skill and susceptibility to deceptive movements. Acta Psychol 123(3):355–371CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Kunde W, Kiesel A, Hoffmann J (2003) Conscious control over the content of unconscious cognition. Cognition 88(2):223–242PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Mann DTY, Williams AM, Ward P, Janelle CM (2007) Perceptual-cognitive expertise in sport: a meta-analysis. J Sport Exerc Psychol 29(4):457–478PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Morris PH, Lewis D (2010) Tackling diving: the perception of deceptive intentions in association football (Soccer). J Nonverbal Behav 34(1):1–13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Müller S, Abernethy B (2006) Batting with occluded vision: an in situ examination of the information pick-up and interceptive skills of high- and low-skilled cricket batsmen. J Sci Med Sport 9(6):446–458PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Neumann O, Klotz W (1994) Motor responses to nonreportable, masked stimuli: where is the limit of direct parameter specification. In: Umilta C, Moscovitch M (eds) Attention and performance XV. Conscious and nonconscious information processing. MIT Press, Cambridge, pp 123–150Google Scholar
  21. Prinz W (1997) Perception and action planning. Eur J Cogn Psychol 9(2):129–154CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Raab M, Johnson J (2008) Implicit learning as a means to intuitive decision making in sports. In: Plessner H, Betsch C, Betsch T (eds) Intuition in judgement and decision making. Taylor and Franics Group, New York, pp 119–133Google Scholar
  23. Rowe RM, McKenna FP (2001) Skilled anticipation in real-world tasks: measurement of attentional demands in the domain of tennis. J Exp Psychol Appl 7(1):60–67PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Schack T (2012) Measuring mental representations. In: Tenenbaum G, Eklund RC, Kamata A (eds) Measurement in sport and exercise psychology. Human Kinetics, Champaign, IL, pp 203–214Google Scholar
  25. Schack T, Mechsner F (2006) Representation of motor skills in human long-term memory. Neurosci Lett 391(3):77–81PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Schorer J, Loffing F, Hagemann N, Baker J (2012) Human handedness in interactive situations: negative perceptual frequency effects can be reversed! J Sport Sci 30(5):507–513. doi:10(1080/02640414),2012,654811 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Schütz-Bosbach S, Prinz W (2007) Prospective coding in event representation. Cogn Process 8(2):93–102. doi:10.1007/s10339-007-0167-x PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Sebanz N, Shiffrar M (2009) Detecting deception in a bluffing body: the role of expertise. Psychon Bull Rev 16(1):170–175PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Shim J, Carlton LG, Chow JW, Chae WS (2005) The use of anticipatory visual cues by highly skilled tennis players. J Motor Behav 37(2):164–175CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Urgesi C, Maieron M, Avenanti A, Tidoni E, Fabbro F, Aglioti SM (2010) Simulating the future of actions in the human corticospinal system. Cereb Cortex 20(11):2511–2521. doi:10.1093/cercor/bhp292 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Williams AM, Ward P (2007) Anticipation and decision-making: exploring new horizons. In: Tenenbaum G, Eklund R (eds) Handbook of sport psychology. Wiley, New York, pp 203–223Google Scholar
  32. Williams AM, Huys R, Canal-Bruland R, Hagemann N (2009) The dynamical information underpinning anticipation skill. Hum Mov Sci 28(3):362–370CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Iris Güldenpenning
    • 1
    • 2
  • Andreas Steinke
    • 1
  • Dirk Koester
    • 1
    • 2
  • Thomas Schack
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.Faculty of Psychology and Sport Science, Neurocognition and Action - Biomechanics - Research GroupBielefeld University33615 BielefeldGermany
  2. 2.Center of Excellence - Cognitive Interaction TechnologyBielefeld University33615 BielefeldGermany
  3. 3.Research Institute for Cognition and Robotics (CorLab)Bielefeld University33615 BielefeldGermany

Personalised recommendations