Advertisement

Experimental Brain Research

, Volume 228, Issue 4, pp 411–425 | Cite as

Effects of learning with explicit elaboration on implicit transfer of visuomotor sequence learning

  • Kanji Tanaka
  • Katsumi Watanabe
Research Article

Abstract

Intervals between stimuli and/or responses have significant influences on sequential learning. In the present study, we investigated whether transfer would occur even when the intervals and the visual configurations in a sequence were drastically changed so that participants did not notice that the required sequences of responses were identical. In the experiment, two (or three) sequential button presses comprised a “set,” and nine (or six) consecutive sets comprised a “hyperset.” In the first session, participants learned either a 2 × 9 or 3 × 6 hyperset by trial and error until they completed it 20 times without error. In the second block, the 2 × 9 (3 × 6) hyperset was changed into the 3 × 6 (2 × 9) hyperset, resulting in different visual configurations and intervals between stimuli and responses. Participants were assigned into two groups: the Identical and Random groups. In the Identical group, the sequence (i.e., the buttons to be pressed) in the second block was identical to that in the first block. In the Random group, a new hyperset was learned. Even in the Identical group, no participants noticed that the sequences were identical. Nevertheless, a significant transfer of performance occurred. However, in the subsequent experiment that did not require explicit trial-and-error learning in the first session, implicit transfer in the second session did not occur. These results indicate that learning with explicit elaboration strengthens the implicit representation of the sequence order as a whole; this might occur independently of the intervals between elements and enable implicit transfer.

Keywords

Implicit learning Sequential learning Explicit learning Interval Transfer 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This work was supported by a Grant-in-Aid for JSPS Fellows and by the Japan Science Technology Agency (CREST).

References

  1. Abrahamse EL, Jiménez L, Verwey WB, Clegg BA (2010) Representing serial action and perception. Psychon Bull Rev 17:603–623PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ashby FG, Alfonso-Reese L, Turken A, Waldron E (1998) A neuropsychological theory of multiple-systems in category learning. Psychol Rev 105:442–481PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bo J, Seidler RD (2009) Visuospatial working memory capacity predicts the organization of acquired explicit motor sequences. J Neurophysiol 101:3116–3125PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Buchner A, Steffens MC (2001) Simultaneous learning of different regularities in sequence learning tasks: limits and characteristics. Psychol Res Psych Fo 65:71–80CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Cohen A, Ivry RI, Keele SW (1990) Attention and structure in sequence learning. J Exp Psychol Learn 16:17–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Curran T, Keele SW (1993) Attentional and nonattentional forms of sequence learning. J Exp Psychol Learn 16:189–202CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Destrebecqz A, Cleeremans A (2001) Can sequence learning be implicit? New evidence with the process dissociation procedure. Psychon Bull Rev 8:343–350PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Destrebecqz A, Cleeremans A (2003) Temporal effects in sequence learning. In: Jiménez L (ed) Attention and implicit learning. Benjamins, Amsterdam, pp 181–213Google Scholar
  9. Dienes Z (2012) Conscious versus unconscious learning of structure. In: Rebuschat P, Williams J (eds) Statistical learning and language acquisition. Mouton de Gruyter Publishers, Berlin, pp 337–364Google Scholar
  10. Dienes Z, Scott R (2005) Measuring unconscious knowledge: distinguishing structural knowledge and judgment knowledge. Psychol Res Psych Fo 69:338–351CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Dominey PF (1998) Influences of temporal organization on sequence learning and transfer: comments on Stadler (1995) and Curran and Keele (1993). J Exp Psychol Learn 24:234–248CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Frensch PA, Miner CS (1994) Effects of presentation rate and individual differences in short-term memory capacity on an indirect measure of serial learning. Mem Cognit 22:95–110PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Frensch PA, Buchner A, Lin J (1994) Implicit learning of unique and ambiguous serial transitions in the presence and absence of distractor task. J Exp Psychol Learn 20:567–584CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Hikosaka O, Rand MK, Miyachi S, Miyashita K (1995) Learning of sequential movements in the monkey: process of learning and retention of memory. J Neurophysiol 74:1652–1661PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Hikosaka O, Sakai K, Miyauchi S, Takino R, Sasaki Y, Putz B (1996) Activation of human presupplementary motor area in learning of sequential procedures: a functional MRI study. J Neurophysiol 76:617–621PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Hikosaka O, Nakahara H, Rand MK, Sakai K, Lu X, Nakamura K, Miyachi S et al (1999) Parallel neural networks for learning sequential procedures. Trends Neurosci 22:464–471PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Hikosaka O, Nakamura K, Sakai K, Nakahara H (2002) Central mechanisms of motor skill learning. Curr Opin Neurobiol 12:217–222PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Honda M, Deiber MP, Ibáñez V, Pascual-Leone A, Zhuang P, Hallett M (1998) Dynamic cortical involvement in implicit and explicit motor sequence learning. A PET study. Brain 121:2159–2173PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Jiang Y, Chun M (2001) Selective attention modulates implicit learning. Q J Exp Psychol 54:1105–1124Google Scholar
  20. Jiang Y, Leung AW (2005) Implicit learning of ignored visual context. Psychon Bull Rev 12:100–106PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Keele SW, Jennings PJ (1992) Attention in the representation of sequence: experiment and theory. Hum Mov Sci 11:125–138CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Kennerley SW, Sakai K, Rushworth MF (2004) Organization of action sequences and the role of the pre-SMA. J Neurophysiol 91:978–993PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Koch I, Hoffmann J (2000) Patterns, chunks, and hierarchies in serial reaction-time tasks. Psychol Res Psych Fo 63:22–35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Mathews RC, Buss RR, Stanley WB, Blanchard-Fields F, Cho JR, Druhan B (1989) The role of implicit and explicit processes in learning from examples: a synergistic effect. J Exp Psychol Learn 15:1083–1100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. McDowall J, Lustig A, Parkin G (1995) Indirect learning of event sequences: the effects of divided attention and stimulus continuity. Can J Psychol 49:415–435CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Miller GA (1956) The magic number seven, plus or minus two: some limits on our capacity for processing information. Psychol Rev 63:81–97PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Miyawaki K (2006) The influence of the response–stimulus interval on implicit and explicit learning of stimulus sequence. Psychol Res Psych Fo 70:262–272CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Nakamura K, Sakai K, Hikosaka O (1998) Neuronal activity in medial frontal cortex during learning of sequential procedures. J Neurophysiol 80:2671–2687PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Nissen MJ, Bullemer P (1987) Attentional requirements of learning: evidence from performance measures. Cogn Psychol 19:1–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Perruchet P, Pacton S (2006) Implicit learning and statistical learning: one phenomenon, two approaches. Trends Cogn Sci 10:233–238PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Povel DJ, Collard R (1982) Structural factors in patterned finger tapping. Acta Psychol 52:107–123CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Reber AS (1967) Implicit learning of artificial grammars. JVLVB 6:317–327CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Restle F, Burnside BL (1972) Tracking of serial patterns. J Exp Psychol 95:299–307PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Rosenbaum DA, Kenny SB, Derr MA (1983) Hierarchical control of rapid movement sequences. J Exp Psychol Hum Percept Perform 9:86–102PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Sakai K, Hikosaka O, Miyachi S, Takino R, Sasaki Y, Putz B (1998) Transition of brain activation from frontal to parietal areas in visuomotor sequence learning. J Neurosci 18:1827–1840PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Sakai K, Kitaguchi K, Hikosaka O (2003) Chunking during human visuomotor learning. Exp Brain Res 152:229–242PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Sakai K, Hikosaka O, Nakamura K (2004) Emergence of rhythm during motor learning. Trends Cogn Sci 8:547–553PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Servan-Schreiber E, Anderson JR (1990) Learning artificial grammars with competitive chunking. J Exp Psychol Learn 16:592–608CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Shanks DR, Rowland LA, Ranger MS (2005) Attentional load and implicit sequence learning. Psychol Res Psych Fo 69:369–382CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Shin JC, Ivry RB (2002) Concurrent learning of temporal and spatial sequences. J Exp Psychol Learn 28:445–457CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Stadler MA (1989) On learning complex procedural knowledge. J Exp Psychol Learn 15:1061–1069CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Stadler MA (1993) Implicit serial learning: questions inspired by Hebb (1961). Mem Cognit 21:819–827PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Stadler MA (1995) Role of attention in implicit learning. J Exp Psychol Learn 21:674–685CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Sun R, Merrill E, Peterson T (2001) From implicit skills to explicit knowledge: a bottom-up model of skill learning. Cogn Sci 25:203–244CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Watanabe K, Ikeda H, Hikosaka O (2006) Effects of explicit knowledge of workspace rotation in visuomotor sequence learning. Exp Brain Res 174:673–678PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Watanabe K, Ikeda H, Miyao M (2010) Learning efficacy of explicit visuomotor sequences in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and Asperger syndrome. Exp Brain Res 203:233–239PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Willingham DB, Greenberg AR, Thomas RC (1997) Response-to-stimulus interval does not affect implicit motor sequence learning, but does affect performance. Mem Cognit 25:534–542PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Ziori E, Dienes Z (2006) Subjective measures of unconscious knowledge of concepts. Mind Soc 5:105–122CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Ziori E, Dienes Z (2008) How does prior knowledge affect implicit and explicit concept learning? Q J Exp Psychol 61:601–624CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Research Center for Advanced Science and TechnologyThe University of TokyoTokyoJapan
  2. 2. Japan Society for the Promotion of ScienceTokyoJapan

Personalised recommendations