Experimental Brain Research

, Volume 228, Issue 2, pp 193–203 | Cite as

Fast-ball sports experts depend on an inhibitory strategy to reprogram their movement timing

  • Hiroki Nakamoto
  • Sachi Ikudome
  • Kengo Yotani
  • Atsuo Maruyama
  • Shiro Mori
Research Article

Abstract

The purpose of our study was to clarify whether an inhibitory strategy is used for reprogramming of movement timing by experts in fast-ball sports when they correct their movement timing due to unexpected environmental changes. We evaluated the influence of disruption of inhibitory function of the right inferior frontal gyrus (rIFG) on reprogramming of movement timing of experts and non-experts in fast-ball sports. The task was to manually press a button to coincide with the arrival of a moving target. The target moved at a constant velocity, and its velocity was suddenly either increased or decreased in some trials. The task was performed either with or without transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), which was delivered to the region of the rIFG. Under velocity change conditions without TMS, the experts showed significantly smaller timing errors and a higher rate of reprogramming of movement timing than the non-experts. Moreover, TMS application during the task significantly diminished the expert group’s performance, but not the control group, particularly in the condition where the target velocity decreases. These results suggest that experts use an inhibitory strategy for reprogramming of movement timing. In addition, the rIFG inhibitory function contributes to the superior movement correction of experts in fast-ball sports.

Keywords

Movement correction Inhibition rIFG Transcranial magnetic stimulation Expertise 

References

  1. Aron AR, Poldrack RA (2006) Cortical and subcortical contributions to Stop signal response inhibition: role of the subthalamic nucleus. J Neurosci 26:2424–2433PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Aron AR, Fletcher PC, Bullmore ET, Sahakian BJ, Robbins TW (2003) Stop-signal inhibition disrupted by damage to right inferior frontal gyrus in humans. Nat Neurosci 6:115–116PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Aron AR, Robbins TW, Poldrack RA (2004) Inhibition and the right inferior frontal cortex. Trends Cogn Sci 8:170–177PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Band GP, van der Molen MW, Logan GD (2003) Horse-race model simulations of the stop-signal procedure. Acta Psychol 112:105–142CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Benguigui N, Ripoll H (1998) Effects of tennis practice on the coincidence timing accuracy of adults and children. Res Q Exerc Sport 69:217–223PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Benguigui N, Ripoll H, Broderick MP (2003) Time-to-contact estimation of accelerated stimuli is based on first-order information. J Exp Psychol Hum Percept Perform 29:1083–1101PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bock O, Jüngling S (1999) Reprogramming of grip aperture in a double-step virtual grasping paradigm. Exp Brain Res 125:61–66PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Brenner E, Smeets JB, de Lussanet MH (1998) Hitting moving targets: continuous control of the acceleration of the hand on the basis of the target’s velocity. Exp Brain Res 122:467–474PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Carlsen AN, Chua R, Timothy Inglis J, Sanderson DJ, Franks IM (2008) Motor preparation in an anticipation-timing task. Exp Brain Res 190:453–461PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Carlton LG, Carlton MJ (1987) Response amendment latencies during discrete arm movement. J Mot Behav 19:227–239PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Chambers CD, Bellgrove MA, Stokes MG, Henderson TR, Garavan H, Robertson IH, Morris AP, Mattingley JB (2006) Executive “brake failure” following deactivation of human frontal lobe. J Cogn Neurosci 18:444–455PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Chambers CD, Bellgrove MA, Gould IC, English T, Garavan H, McNaught E, Kamke M, Mattingley JB (2007) Dissociable mechanisms of cognitive control in prefrontal and premotor cortex. J Neurophysiol 98:3638–3647PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Chambers CD, Garavan H, Bellgrove MA (2009) Insights into the neural basis of response inhibition from cognitive and clinical neuroscience. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 33:631–646PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Coxon JP, Stinear CM, Byblow WD (2007) Selective inhibition of movement. J Neurophysiol 97:2480–2489PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. De Azevedo Neto RM, Teixeira LA (2011) Intercepting moving targets: does memory from practice in a specific condition of target displacement affect movement timing? Exp Brain Res 211:109–117PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. De Jong R, Coles MG, Logan GD, Gratton G (1990) In search of the point of no return: the control of response processes. J Exp Psychol Hum Percept Perform 16:164–182PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Enriquez-Geppert S, Konrad C, Pantev C, Huster RJ (2010) Conflict and inhibition differentially affect the N200/P300 complex in a combined go/nogo and stop-signal task. NeuroImage 51:877–887PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Flash T, Henis E (1991) Arm trajectory modifications during reaching towards visual targets. J Cogn Neurosci 3:220–230CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Frohlich C (1984) Aerodynamic drag crisis and its possible effect on the flight of baseballs. Am J Phys 52:325–334CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Garavan H, Ross TJ, Stein EA (1999) Right hemispheric dominance of inhibitory control: an event-related functional MRI study. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 96:8301–8306PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Goodale MA, Milner AD (1992) Separate visual pathways for perception and action. Trends Neurosci 15:20–25PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Gray R (2009) A model of motor inhibition for a complex skill: baseball batting. J Exp Psychol Appl 15:91–105PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Hampshire A, Chamberlain SR, Monti MM, Duncan J, Owen AM (2010) The role of the right inferior frontal gyrus: inhibition and attentional control. Neuroimage 50:1313–1319PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Ikeda A, Yazawa S, Kunieda T, Ohara S, Terada K, Mikuni N, Nagamine T, Taki W, Kimura J, Shibasaki H (1999) Cognitive motor control in human pre-supplementary motor area studied by subdural recording of discrimination/selection-related potentials. Brain 122:915–931PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Kadota K, Gomi H (2010) Implicit visuomotor processing for quick online reactions is robust against aging. J Neurosci 30:205–209PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Kok A, Ramautar JR, De Ruiter MB, Band GP, Ridderinkhof KR (2004) ERP components associated with successful and unsuccessful stopping in a stop-signal task. Psychophysiology 41:9–20PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Larish DD, Stelmach GE (1982) Preprogramming, programming and reprogramming of aimed hand movements as a function of age. J Mot Behav 14:322–340PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Le Runigo C, Benguigui N, Bardy BG (2005) Perception-action coupling and expertise in interceptive actions. Hum Mov Sci 24:429–445PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Le Runigo C, Benguigui N, Bardy BG (2010) Visuo-motor delay, information-movement coupling, and expertise in ball sports. J Sports Sci 28:327–337PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Lee JH, van Donkelaar P (2002) Dorsal and ventral visual stream contributions to perception-action interactions during pointing. Exp Brain Res 143:440–446PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Leuthold H, Jentzsch I (2002) Spatiotemporal source localization reveals involvement of medial premotor areas in movement reprogramming. Exp Brain Res 144:178–188PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Lobjois R, Benguigui N, Bertsch J (2005) Aging and tennis playing in a coincidence-timing task with an accelerating object: the role of visuomotor delay. Res Q Exerc Sport 76:398–406PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Logan GD, Cowan WB (1984) On the ability to inhibit thought and action: a theory of an act of control. Psychol Rev 91:295–327CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Makoshi Z, Kroliczak G, Van Donkelaar P (2011) Human supplementary motor area contribution to predictive motor planning. J Mot Behav 43:303–309PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Marinovic W, Plooy AM, Tresilian JR (2009) Preparation and inhibition of interceptive actions. Exp Brain Res 197:311–319PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Marinovic W, Reid CS, Plooy AM, Riek S, Tresilian JR (2011) Corticospinal excitability during preparation for an anticipatory action is modulated by the availability of visual information. J Neurophysiol 105:1122–1129PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Mars RB, Piekema C, Coles MG, Hulstijn W, Toni I (2007) On the programming and reprogramming of actions. Cereb Cortex 17:2972–2979PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. McGarry T, Chua R, Franks IM (2003) Stopping and restarting an unfolding action at various times. Q J Exp Psychol A 56:601–620PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. McLeod P (1987) Visual reaction time and high-speed ball games. Perception 16:49–59PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Nakamoto H, Mori S (2008) Effects of stimulus-response compatibility in mediating expert performance in baseball players. Brain Res 1189:179–188PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Nakamoto H, Mori S (2012) Experts in fast-ball sports reduce anticipation timing cost by developing inhibitory control. Brain Cogn 80:23–32PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Nakata H, Sakamoto K, Kakigi R (2010a) Characteristics of No-go-P300 component during somatosensory Go/No-go paradigms. Neurosci Lett 478:124–127PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Nakata H, Yoshie M, Miura A, Kudo K (2010b) Characteristics of the athletes’ brain: evidence from neurophysiology and neuroimaging. Brain Res Rev 62:197–211PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Neubert FX, Mars RB, Buch ER, Olivier E, Rushworth MF (2010) Cortical and subcortical interactions during action reprogramming and their related white matter pathways. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 107:13240–13245PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Okamoto M, Dan H, Sakamoto K, Takeo K, Shimizu K, Kohno S, Oda I, Isobe S, Suzuki T, Kohyama K, Dan I (2004) Three-dimensional probabilistic anatomical cranio-cerebral correlation via the international 10–20 system oriented for transcranial functional brain mapping. Neuroimage 21:99–111PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Quinn JT, Sherwood DE (1983) Time requirements of changes in program and parameter variables in rapid ongoing movements. J Mot Behav 15:163–178PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Ramautar JR, Kok A, Ridderinkhof KR (2004) Effects of stop-signal probability in the stop-signal paradigm: the N2/P3 complex further validated. Brain Cogn 56:234–252PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Ripoll H, Latiri I (1997) Effect of expertise on coincident-timing accuracy in a fast ball game. J Sports Sci 15:573–580PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Rubia K, Smith AB, Brammer MJ, Taylor E (2003) Right inferior prefrontal cortex mediates response inhibition while mesial prefrontal cortex is responsible for error detection. Neuroimage 20:351–358PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Schmidt RA (1976) Control processes in motor skills. Exerc Sport Sci Rev 4:229–261PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Selin C (1959) An analysis of the aerodynamics of pitched baseballs. Res Q 30:232–240Google Scholar
  52. Sharp DJ, Bonnelle V, De Boissezon X, Beckmann CF, James SG, Patel MC, Mehta MA (2010) Distinct frontal systems for response inhibition, attentional capture, and error processing. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 107:6106–6111PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Shima K, Mushiake H, Saito N, Tanji J (1996) Role for cells in the presupplementary motor area in updating motor plans. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 93:8694–8698PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Slater-Hammel AT (1960) Reliability, accuracy and refractoriness of a transit reaction. Res Q 31:217–228Google Scholar
  55. Teixeira LA, Lima Edos S, Franzoni MM (2005) The continuous nature of timing reprogramming in an interceptive task. J Sports Sci 23:943–950PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Teixeira LA, Chua R, Nagelkerke P, Franks IM (2006a) Reprogramming of interceptive actions: time course of temporal corrections for unexpected target velocity change. J Mot Behav 38:467–477PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Teixeira LA, Franzoni MM, da Silva JB (2006b) Are the elderly able to appropriately reprogram their actions? Mot Control 10:93–108Google Scholar
  58. Tresilian JR (1995) Perceptual and cognitive processes in time-to-contact estimation: analysis of prediction-motion and relative judgment tasks. Percept Psychophys 57:231–245PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Ungerleider LG, Mishkin M (1982) Two cortical visual systems. In: Ingle DJ, Goodale MA, Mansfield RJW (eds) Analysis of visual behavior. MIT Press, Cambridge, pp 549–586Google Scholar
  60. Verbruggen F, Logan GD (2009) Models of response inhibition in the stop-signal and stop-change paradigms. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 33:647–661PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Yarrow K, Brown P, Krakauer JW (2009) Inside the brain of an elite athlete: the neural processes that support high achievement in sports. Nat Rev Neurosci 10:585–596PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hiroki Nakamoto
    • 1
  • Sachi Ikudome
    • 2
  • Kengo Yotani
    • 1
  • Atsuo Maruyama
    • 3
  • Shiro Mori
    • 1
  1. 1.Faculty of Physical EducationNational Institute of Fitness and Sports in KanoyaKanoyaJapan
  2. 2.Graduate School of Physical Education, Doctor’s CourseNational Institute of Fitness and Sports in KanoyaKanoyaJapan
  3. 3.Department of Health and SportsNiigata University of Health and WelfareNiigataJapan

Personalised recommendations