Advertisement

Experimental Brain Research

, Volume 223, Issue 2, pp 311–319 | Cite as

Time dilation caused by static images with implied motion

  • Kentaro YamamotoEmail author
  • Kayo Miura
Research Article

Abstract

The present study examined whether implicit motion information from static images influences perceived duration of image presentation. In Experiments 1 and 2, we presented observers with images of a human and an animal character in running and standing postures. The results revealed that the perceived presentation duration of running images was longer than that of standing images. In Experiments 3 and 4, we used abstract block-like images that imitated the human figures used in Experiment 1, presented with different instructions to change the observers’ interpretations of the stimuli. We found that the perceived duration of the block image presented as a man running was longer than that of the image presented as a man standing still. However, this effect diminished when the participants were told the images were green onions (objects with no implied motion), suggesting that the effect of implied motion cannot be attributed to low-level visual differences. These results suggest that implied motion increases the perceived duration of image presentation. The potential involvement of higher-order motion processing and the mirror neuron system is discussed.

Keywords

Time perception Implied motion Static images MT Mirror neurons 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This work was supported by a Grant-in-Aid for JSPS Fellows #224466 to K. Y. and Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research #20330153 to K. M. from the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS).

References

  1. Aaen-Stockdale C, Hotchkiss J, Heron J, Whitaker D (2011) Perceived time is spatial frequency dependent. Vis Res 51(11):1232–1238PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Battelli L, Walsh V, Pascual-Leone A, Cavanagh P (2008) The ‘when’ parietal pathway explored by lesion studies. Curr Opin Neurobiol 18(2):120–126PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Block RA (1990) Models of psychological time. In: Block RA (ed) Cognitive models of psychological time. Lawrence Erlbaum, Hillsdale, pp 1–35Google Scholar
  4. Braddick O (1995) The many faces of motion perception. In: Gregory R, Harris J, Heard P, Rose D (eds) The artful eye. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp 205–231Google Scholar
  5. Brainard DH (1997) The psychophysics toolbox. Spat Vis 10(4):433–436PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Brown SW (1995) Time, change, and motion: the effects of stimulus movement on temporal perception. Percept Psychophys 57(1):105–116PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bueti D, Bahrami B, Walsh V (2008) Sensory and association cortex in time perception. J Cogn Neurosci 20(6):1054–1062PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Burr D, Tozzi A, Morrone MC (2007) Neural mechanisms for timing visual events are spatially selective in real-world coordinates. Nat Neurosci 10:423–425PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Curran W, Benton CP (2012) The many directions of time. Cognition 122:252–257PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Cutting JE (2002) Representing motion in a static image: constraints and parallels in art, science, and popular culture. Perception 31(10):1165–1193PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Droit-Volet S, Wearden JH (2002) Speeding up an internal clock in children? Effects of visual flicker on subjective duration. Q J Exp Psychol 55B:193–211Google Scholar
  12. Eagleman DM, Pariyadath V (2009) Is subjective duration a signature of coding efficiency? Phil Trans R Soc B 364:1841–1851PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Fraisse P (1963) The psychology of time. Harper & Row, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  14. Gibbon J (1977) Scalar expectancy theory and Weber’s law in animal timing. Psychol Rev 84(3):279–325CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Gil S, Droit-Volet S (2009) Time perception, depression and sadness. Behav Processes 80(2):169–176PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Ivry RB, Schlerf JE (2008) Dedicated and intrinsic models of time perception. Trends Cogn Sci 12:273–280PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Jarvelainen J, Schurmann M, Hari R (2004) Activation of the human primary motor cortex during observation of tool use. Neuroimage 23(1):187–192PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Johnston A, Arnold DH, Nishida S (2006) Spatially localized distortions of event time. Curr Biol 16:472–479PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Kanai R, Paffen CL, Hogendoorn H, Verstraten FA (2006) Time dilation in dynamic visual display. J Vis 6(12):1421–1430PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Kaneko S, Murakami I (2009) Perceived duration of visual motion increases with speed. J Vis 9(7):1–12, article 14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Kim C-Y, Blake R (2007) Seeing what you understand: brain activity accompanying perception of implied motion in abstract paintings. Spat Vis 20(6):545–560PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Kourtzi Z, Kanwisher N (2000) Activation in human MT/MST by static images with implied motion. J Cogn Neurosci 12(1):48–55PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Kourtzi Z, Krekelberg B, van Wezel RJA (2008) Linking form and motion in the primate brain. Trends Cogn Sci 12(6):230–236PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Lorteije JA, Kenemans JL, Jellema T, van der Lubbe RH, de Heer F, van Wezel RJ (2006) Delayed response to animate implied motion in human motion processing areas. J Cogn Neurosci 18(2):158–168PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Mauk MD, Buonomano DV (2004) The neural basis of temporal processing. Annu Rev Neurosci 27:307–330PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Mo SS (1975) Temporal reproduction of duration as a function of numerosity. Bull Psych Soc 5(2):165–167Google Scholar
  27. Moscatelli A, Polito L, Lacquaniti F (2011) Time perception of action photographs is more precise than that of still photographs. Exp Brain Res 210(1):25–32PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Nather FC, Bueno JLO (2008) Movement ranking scale of human body static images for subjective timing estimation. In: Proceedings of the 24th annual meeting of the society for psychophysics, pp 185–190Google Scholar
  29. Nather FC, Bueno JLO (2011) Static images with different induced intensities of human body movements affect subjective time. Percept Mot Skills 113(1):157–170PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Nather FC, Bueno JLO (2012) Timing perception in paintings and sculptures of Edgar Degas. KronoScope 12(1):16–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Nather FC, Bueno JLO, Bigand E, Droit-Volet S (2011) Time changes with the embodiment of another’s body posture. PLoS ONE 6(5):e19818PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Ono F, Kawahara J (2007) The subjective size of visual stimuli affects the perceived duration of their presentation. Percept Psychophys 69(6):952–957PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Osaka N, Matsuyoshi D, Ikeda T, Osaka M (2010) Implied motion because of instability in Hokusai Manga activates the human motion-sensitive extrastriate visual cortex: an fMRI study of the impact of visual art. NeuroReport 21(4):264–267PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Pelli DG (1997) The VideoToolbox software for visual psychophysics: transforming numbers into movies. Spat Vis 10(4):437–442PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Penton-Voak IS, Edwards H, Percival A, Wearden JH (1996) Speeding up an internal clock in humans? Effects of clicks trains on subjective duration. J Exp Psychol Anim Behav Process 22(3):307–320PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Perani D, Fazio F, Borghese NA, Tettamanti M, Ferrari S, Decety J, Gilardi MC (2001) Different brain correlates for watching real and virtual hand actions. Neuroimage 14(3):749–758PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Poynter D (1989) Judging the duration of time intervals: a process of remembering segments of experience. In: Levin I, Zakay D (eds) Time and human cognition: a life-span perspective. Elsevier, The Netherlands, pp 305–321CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Proverbio AM, Riva F, Zani A (2009) Observation of static pictures of dynamic actions enhances the activity of movement-related brain areas. PLoS ONE 4(5):e5389PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Rizzolatti G, Craighero L (2004) The mirror-neuron system. Annu Rev Neurosci 27:169–192PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Rizzolatti G, Fadiga L, Gallese V, Fogassi L (1996) Premotor cortex and the recognition of motor actions. Cogn Brain Res 3(2):131–141CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Sadeghi NG, Pariyadath V, Apte S, Eagleman DM, Cook EP (2011) Neural correlates of subsecond time distortion in the middle temporal area of visual cortex. J Cogn Neurosci 23(12):3829–3840PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Schiffman HR, Bobko DJ (1974) Effects of stimulus complexity on the perception of brief temporal intervals. J Exp Psychol 103(1):156–159PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Senior C, Barnes J, Giampietro V, Simmons A, Bullmore ET, Brammer M, David AS (2000) The functional neuroanatomy of implicit-motion perception or representational momentum. Curr Biol 10(1):16–22PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Tai YF, Scherfler C, Brooks DJ, Sawamoto N, Castiello U (2004) The human premotor cortex is ‘mirror’ only for biological actions. Curr Biol 14(2):117–120PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Thomas EAC, Cantor NE (1975) On the duality of simultaneous time and size perception. Percept Psychophys 18(1):44–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Urgesi C, Moro V, Candidi M, Aglioti SM (2006) Mapping implied body actions in the human motor system. J Neurosci 26(30):7942–7949PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Wearden JH, Ferrara A (1996) Stimulus range effects in temporal bisection by humans. Q J Exp Psychol 49B:24–44Google Scholar
  48. Wichmann FA, Hill NJ (2001a) The psychometric function: I. Fitting, sampling, and goodness of fit. Percept Psychophys 63(8):1293–1313PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Wichmann FA, Hill NJ (2001b) The psychometric function: II. Bootstrap-based confidence intervals and sampling. Percept Psychophys 63(8):1314–1329PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Winawer J, Huk AC, Boroditsky L (2008) A motion aftereffect from still photographs depicting motion. Psychol Sci 19(3):276–283PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Xuan B, Zhang D, He S, Chen X (2007) Larger stimuli are judged to last longer. J Vis 7(10):1–5, article 2PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Yamamoto K, Miura K (2012) Perceived duration of plaid motion increases with pattern speed rather than component speed. J Vis 12(4):1–13, article 1PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Graduate School of Human-Environment StudiesKyushu UniversityFukuokaJapan
  2. 2.Faculty of Human-Environment StudiesKyushu UniversityFukuokaJapan

Personalised recommendations