The decision about which location should be the goal of the next eye movement is known to be determined by the interaction between auditory and visual input. This interaction can be explained by the vector theory that states that each element (either visual or auditory) in a scene evokes a vector in the oculomotor system. These vectors determine the direction in which the eye movement is initiated. Because auditory input is lateralized and localizable in most studies, it is currently unclear how non-lateralized auditory input interacts with the vectors evoked by visual input. In the current study, we investigated the influence of a non-lateralized auditory non-target on saccade accuracy (saccade angle deviation from the target) and latency in a single-target condition in Experiment 1 and a double-target condition in Experiment 2. The visual targets in Experiment 2 were positioned in such a way that saccades on average landed in between the two targets (i.e., a global effect). There was no effect of the auditory input on saccade accuracy in the single-target condition, but auditory input did influence saccade accuracy in the double-target condition. In both experiments, saccade latency increased when auditory input accompanied the visual target(s). Together, these findings show that non-lateralized auditory input enhances all vectors evoked by visual input. The results will be discussed in terms of their possible neural substrates.
Saccade Accuracy Vector Averaging Oculomotor Superior colliculus
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
This research was funded by two grants from NWO (Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research): grant 451-09-019 to SvdS and grant 451-10-013 to TCWN.
Colonius H, Arndt PA (2001) A two-stage model for visual-auditory interaction in saccadic latencies. Percept Psychophys 63:126–147PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Colonius H, Diederich A (2004) Multisensory interaction in saccadic reaction time: a time-window-of-integration model. J Cogn Neurosci 16:1000–1009PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Doyle MC, Walker R (2002) Multisensory interactions in saccade target selection: curved saccade trajectories. Exp Brain Res 142:116–130CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Frens MA, Van Opstal AJ (1995) A quantitative study of auditory-evoked saccadic eye movements in two dimensions. Exp Brain Res 107:103–117PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Frens MA, Van Opstal AJ, Van der Willigen RF (1995) Spatial and temporal factors determine auditory-visual interactions in human saccadic eye movements. Percept Psychophys 57:802–816PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gielen SCAM, Schmidt RA, Van den Heuvel PJM (1983) On the nature of intersensory facilitation of reaction time. Percept Psychophys 34:161–168PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hughes HC, Reuter-Lorenz PA, Nozawa G, Fendrich R (1994) Visual-auditory interactions in sensorimotor processing: saccades versus manual responses. J Exp Psychol Human 20:131–153CrossRefGoogle Scholar
King AJ, Palmer AR (1985) Integration of visual and auditory information in bimodal neurones in the guinea-pig superior colliculus. Exp Brain Res 60:492–500PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lee C, Rohrer WH, Sparks DL (1988) Population coding of saccadic eye movements by neurons in the superior colliculus. Nature 332:357–360PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lueck CJ, Crawford TJ, Savage CJ, Kennard C (1990) Auditory-visual interaction in the generation of saccades in man. Exp Brain Res 82:149–157PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mays LE, Sparks DL (1980) Dissociation of visual and saccade-related responses in superior colliculus neurons. J Neurophsyiol 43:207–232Google Scholar
Ottes FP, Gisbergen JAM, Eggermont JJ (1985) Latency dependence of colour-based target versus nontarget discrimination by the saccadic system. Vis Res 25:849–862PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pitts W, McCulloch WS (1947) How we know universals: the perception of auditory and visual forms. B Math Biophys 9:127–147CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sparks DL, Nelson JS (1987) Sensory and motor maps in the mammalian superior colliculus. Trends Neurosci 10:312–317CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Taylor TL, Klein RM, Munoz DP (1999) Saccadic performance as a function of the presence and disappearance of auditory and visual fixation stimuli. J
Cogn Neurosci 11:206–213PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tipper SP, Howard LA, Jackson SR (1997) Selective reaching to grasp: evidence for distractor interference effects. Vis Cogn 4:1–38CrossRefGoogle Scholar