Experimental Brain Research

, Volume 209, Issue 1, pp 109–115 | Cite as

The influences of time-of-day and sleep deprivation on postural control

  • Clement Bougard
  • Marie-Charlotte Lepelley
  • Damien DavenneEmail author
Research Article


The aim of this study was to check the combined and/or dissociated influences of time-of-day and sleep deprivation on postural control. Twenty subjects participated in test sessions which took place at 6:00 am, 10:00 am, 2:00 pm and 6:00 pm either after a normal night’s sleep or after a night of total sleep deprivation. Postural control was evaluated by COP surface area, LFS ratio and Romberg’s index. The results showed that postural control fluctuates diurnally according to three different periods, pronounced by sleep deprivation: (1) at 6:00 am, there was no modification by sleep deprivation; (2) at 10:00 am and 2:00 pm, an interaction effect was observed for COP surface area and LFS ratio after sleep deprivation. Values of COP surface area were significantly higher (P < 0.01) following the night of sleep deprivation than after the normal night’s sleep (139.36 ± 63.82 mm2 vs. 221.72 ± 137.13 mm2 and 143.78 ± 75.31 mm2 vs. 228.65 ± 125.09 mm2, respectively); (3) at 6:00 pm, the LFS ratio was higher than during the two other periods (P < 0.001) whereas COP surface area decreased to the level observed at 6:00 am. At this time-of-day, only the LFS ratio was significantly increased (P < 0.05) by the night of sleep deprivation (0.89 ± 0.14 vs. 1.03 ± 0.30). This temporal evolution in postural control does not seem to be related to any deterioration in visual input as Romberg’s index (150.09 ± 97.91) was not modified, regardless of the test session.


Postural control Sleep deprivation Time-of-day 



This work was supported in part by a PREDIT-GO4 contract. Clément Bougard was awarded a grant for his PhD thesis by the Conseil Régional de Basse-Normandie (Regional council of Lower Normandy) and the Institut National de REcherche sur les Transports et leur Sécurité (The French National Institute for Transport and Safety Research).


  1. Avni N, Avni I, Barenboim E, Azaria B, Zadok D, Kohen-Raz R, Morad Y (2006) Brief posturographic test as an indicator of fatigue. Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 60:340–346CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Baxter C, Reilly T (1983) Influence of time of day on all-out swimming. Br J Sports Med 17:122–127CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Borbely AA (2009) Refining sleep homeostasis in the two-process model. J Sleep Res 18:1–2CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Bougard C, Bessot N, Moussay S, Sesboue B, Gauthier A (2009) Effects of waking time and breakfast intake prior to evaluation of physical performance in the early morning. Chronobiol Int 26:307–323CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Caron O, Gelat T, Rougier P, Blanchi JP (2000) A comparative analysis of the center of gravity of pressure trajectory path lengths in standing posture: an estimation of active stiffness. J Appl Biomech 16:234–247PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Casagrande M, Violani C, Curcio G, Bertini M (1997) Assessing vigilance through a brief pencil and paper letter cancellation task (LCT): effects of one night of sleep deprivation and of the time of day. Ergonomics 40:613–630CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Ciok J, Dolna A (2006) Carbohydrates and mental performance-the role of glycemic index of food products. Pol Merkur Lekarski 20:367–370PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Clodore M, Foret J, Benoit O (1986) Diurnal variation in subjective and objective measures of sleepiness: the effects of sleep reduction and circadian type. Chronobiol Int 3:255–263CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. de Wit G (1972) Optic versus vestibular and proprioceptive impulses, measured by posturometry. Agressologie 13:75–79PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Drummond SP, Brown GG (2001) The effects of total sleep deprivation on cerebral responses to cognitive performance. Neuropsychopharmacology 25:68–73CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Fabbri M, Martoni M, Esposito MJ, Brighetti G, Natale V (2006) Postural control after a night without sleep. Neuropsychologia 44:2520–2525CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Forsman P, Haeggstrom E, Wallin A, Toppila E, Pyykko I (2007) Daytime changes in postural stability and repeatability of posturographic measurements. J Occup Environ Med 49:591–596CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Forsman P, Tietäväinen A, Wallin A, Haeggström E (2008) Modeling balance control during sustained waking allows posturographic sleepiness testing. J Biomech 41:2892–2894CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Gagey PM, Weber B (1999) Posturologie; Régulation et dérèglements de la station debout. Masson, ParisGoogle Scholar
  15. Gauthier A, Davenne D, Gentil C, Van Hoecke J (1997) Circadian rhythm in the torque developed by elbow flexors during isometric contraction: effect of sampling schedules. Chronobiol Int 14:287–294CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Gomez S, Patel M, Berg S, Magnusson M, Johansson R, Fransson PA (2008) Effects of proprioceptive vibratory stimulation on body movement at 24 and 36 h of sleep deprivation. Clin Neurophysiol 119:617–625CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Gribble PA, Hertel J (2004) Changes in postural control during a 48-h sleep deprivation period. Percept Mot Skills 99:1035–1045PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Gribble PA, Tucker WS, White PA (2007) Time-of-day influences on static and dynamic postural control. J Athl Train 42:35–41PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Guette M, Gondin J, Martin A (2005) Morning to evening changes in the electrical and mechanical properties of human soleus motor units activated by H reflex and M wave. Eur J Appl Physiol 95:377–381CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Guette M, Gondin J, Martin A, Pérot C, Van Hoecke J (2006) Plantar flexion torque as a function of time of day. Int J Sports Med 27:171–177CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Hæggström E, Forsman P, Wallin A, Toppila E, Pyykkö I (2006) Evaluating sleepiness using force platform posturography. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng 53:1578–1585CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Horne JA, Ostberg O (1976) A self-assessment questionnaire to determine morningness-eveningness in human circadian rhythms. Int J Chronobiol 4:97–110PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Kerkhof GA, van Dongen HP (1996) Morning-type and evening-type individuals differ in the phase position of their endogenous circadian oscillator. Neurosci Lett 218:153–156CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Kohen-Raz R, Himmelfarb M, Tzur S, Kohen-Raz A, Shub Y (1996) An initial evaluation of work fatigue and circadian changes as assessed by multiplate posturography. Percept Mot Skills 82:547–557PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Lavie P (1985) Ultradian rhythm: gates of sleep and wakefulness. In: Schulz H, Lavie P (eds) Ultradian rhythms in physiology and behavior. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, pp 148–164Google Scholar
  26. Liu Y, Higuchi S, Motohashi Y (2001) Changes in postural sway during a period of sustained wakefulness in male adults. Occup Med 51:490–495CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Lorenzo I, Ramos J, Arce C, Guevara MA, Corsi-Cabrera M (1995) Effect of total sleep deprivation on reaction time and waking EEG activity in man. Sleep 18:346–354PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Morad Y, Azaria B, Avni I, Barkana Y, Zadok D, Kohen-Raz R, Barenboim E (2007) Posturography as an indicator of fatigue due to sleep deprivation. Aviat Space Environ Med 78:859–863PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Nabb SL, Benton D (2006) The effect of the interaction between glucose tolerance and breakfasts varying in carbohydrate and fibre on mood and cognition. Nutr Neurosci 9:161–168CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Nakano T, Araki K, Michimori A, Inbe H, Hagiwara H, Koyama E (2001) Nineteen-hour variation of postural sway, alertness and rectal temperature during sleep deprivation. Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 55:277–278CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Njiokiktjien CJ, van Parys JA (1976) Romberg’s sign expressed in a quotient. II. Pathology. Agressologie 17:19–23PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Ouchi Y, Okada H, Yoshikawa E, Nobezawa S, Futatsubashi M (1999) Brain activation during maintenance of standing postures in humans. Brain 122:329–338CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Patel M, Gomez S, Berg S, Almbladh P, Lindblad J, Petersen H, Magnusson M, Johansson R, Fransson PA (2008) Effects of 24-h and 36-h sleep deprivation on human postural control and adaptation. Exp Brain Res 185:165–173CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Redfern MS, Yardley L, Bronstein AM (2001) Visual influences on balance. J Anxiety Disord 15:81–94CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Reilly T (1990) Human circadian rhythms and exercise. Crit Rev Biomed Eng 18:165–180PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Reilly T, Bambaeichi E (2003) Methodological issues in studies of rhythms in human performance. Biol Rhythm Res 34:321–336CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Reilly T, Brooks GA (1990) Selective persistence of circadian rhythms in physiological responses to exercise. Chronobiol Int 7:59–67CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Reilly T, Robinson G, Minors DS (1984) Some circulatory responses to exercise at different times of day. Med Sci Sports Exerc 16:477–482CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Schlesinger A, Redfern MS, Dahl RE, Jennings JR (1998) Postural control, attention and sleep deprivation. Neuroreport 9:49–52CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Seliga R, Bhattacharya A, Succop P, Wickstrom R, Smith D, Willeke K (1991) Effect of work load and respirator wear on postural stability, heart rate, and perceived exertion. Am Ind Hyg Assoc J 52:417–422PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Teasdale N, Simoneau M (2001) Attentional demands for postural control: the effects of aging and sensory reintegration. Gait Posture 14:203–210CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Uimonen S, Laitakari K, Bloigu R, Sorri M (1994) The repeatability of posturographic measurements and the effects of sleep deprivation. J Vestib Res 4:29–36PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Clement Bougard
    • 1
    • 2
  • Marie-Charlotte Lepelley
    • 3
  • Damien Davenne
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.INSERM, ERI27Université de CaenCaenFrance
  2. 2.INRETS, LEPSISParis Cedex 15France
  3. 3.ERT, RAPSODIE 2002, Université de CaenCaenFrance

Personalised recommendations