Experimental Brain Research

, Volume 201, Issue 2, pp 359–364 | Cite as

Detection of visual feedback delay in active and passive self-body movements

  • Sotaro ShimadaEmail author
  • Yuan Qi
  • Kazuo Hiraki
Research Note


Temporal congruency between the efference copy of a motor command and the reafferent sensory feedback is crucial for identifying self-generated body movements. We investigated how temporal discrepancy between the efference copy and visual feedback affects the self-body movement recognition process. Subjects experienced active and passive hand movements under conditions of delayed visual feedback (118–352 ms) and judged whether observed hand movements were delayed with respect to the felt movement. The results showed that the discrimination threshold of visual feedback delay (50% detection rate) was not significantly different between active and passive movements. In contrast, the judgment probability curve was significantly steeper for active than passive movements. This indicates that the efference copy enhances the contrast between synchronous and asynchronous movements but does not narrow the time window in this process. We discuss processing of active and passive movements in relation to the senses of self-agency and self-ownership.


Self-recognition Efference copy Delayed visual feedback Agency Ownership 



This work was partially supported by a Grant-in-Aid for Young Scientists (19700249) from the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS).


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Electronics and Bioinformatics, School of Science and TechnologyMeiji UniversityKawasakiJapan
  2. 2.Department of General Systems StudiesThe University of TokyoTokyoJapan
  3. 3.Interfaculty Initiative in Information StudiesThe University of TokyoTokyoJapan

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