Experimental Brain Research

, Volume 204, Issue 3, pp 305–314 | Cite as

The skin as a social organ

  • India MorrisonEmail author
  • Line S. Löken
  • Håkan Olausson


In general, social neuroscience research tends to focus on visual and auditory channels as routes for social information. However, because the skin is the site of events and processes crucial to the way we think about, feel about, and interact with one another, touch can mediate social perceptions in various ways. This review situates cutaneous perception within a social neuroscience framework by discussing evidence for considering touch (and to some extent pain) as a channel for social information. Social information conveys features of individuals or their interactions that have potential bearing on future interactions, and attendant mental and emotional states. Here, we discuss evidence for an affective dimension of touch and explore its wider implications for the exchange of social information. We consider three important roles for this affective dimension of the cutaneous senses in the transmission and processing of social information: first, through affiliative behavior and communication; second, via affective processing in skin–brain pathways; and third, as a basis for intersubjective representation.


Social neuroscience CT afferents Pleasant touch Empathy 



I.M. would like to thank Tom Ziemke for his assistance during the writing of this article; thanks also to Christian Keysers and an anonymous reviewer for valuable suggestions.


  1. Akitsuki Y, Decety J (2009) Social context and perceived agency affects empathy for pain: an event-related fMRI investigation. Neuroimage 47:722–734CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Amico JA, Vollmer RR, Karam JR, Lee PR, Li X, Koenig JI, McCarthy MM (2004) Centrally administered oxytocin elicits exaggerated grooming in oxytocin null mice. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 2004(78):333–339CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Armel KC, Ramachandran VS (2003) Projecting sensations to external objects: evidence from skin conductance response. Proc R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 270:1499–1506CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Augustine JR (1996) Circuitry and functional aspects of the insular lobe in primates including humans. Brain Res Rev 22:229–244CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Auvray M, Myin E, Spence C (2008) The sensory-discriminative and affective-motivational processing of pain. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. doi: 10.1016/j.neubiorev.2008.07.008 (in press)
  6. Avenanti A, Bueti D, Galati G, Aglioti SM (2005) Transcranial magnetic stimulation highlights the sensorimotor side of empathy for pain. Nat Neurosci 8:955–960PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Avenanti A, Minio-Paluello I, Bufalari I, Aglioti SM (2006) Stimulus-driven modulation of motor-evoked potentials during observation of others’ pain. Neuroimage. 32:316–324CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Banissy MJ, Ward J (2007) Mirror-touch synesthesia is linked with empathy. Nat Neurosci 10:815–816CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Banissy MJ, Kadosh RC, Maus GW, Walsh V, Ward J (2009) Prevalence, characteristics and a neurocognitive model of mirror-touch synaesthesia. Exp Brain ResGoogle Scholar
  10. Berridge KC, Kringelbach ML (2008) Affective neuroscience of pleasure: reward in humans and animals. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 199:457–480CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Björnsdotter M, Löken L, Olausson H, Vallbo Å, Wessberg J (2009) Somatotopic organization of gentle touch processing in the posterior insular cortex. J Neurosci 29:9314–9320CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Blakemore SJ, Wolpert DM, Frith CD (1998) Central cancellation of self-produced tickle sensation. Nat Neurosci 1:635–640CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Blakemore S-J, Bristow D, Bird G, Frith C, Ward J (2005) Somatosensory activations during the observation of touch and a case of vision-touch synaesthesia. Brain 128:1571–1583CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Botvinick M, Jha AP, Bylsma LM, Fabian SA, Solomon PE, Prkachin KM (2005) Viewing facial expressions of pain engages cortical areas involved in the direct experience of pain. Neuroimage 25:312–319CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Bufalari I, Aprile T, Avenanti A, Di Russo F, Aglioti SM (2007) Empathy for pain and touch in the human somatosensory cortex. Cereb Cortex 17:2553–2561CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Burgoon JK, Walther JB, Baesler EJ (1992) Interpretations, evaluations, and consequences of interpersonal touch. Hum Comm Res 19:237–263CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Cheng Y, Lin C, Liu H, Hsu Y, Lim K, Hung D et al (2007) Expertise modulates the perception of pain in others. Curr Biol 17:1708–1713CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Coan JA, Schaefer HS, Davidson RJ (2006) Lending a hand: social regulation of the neural response to threat. Psychol Sci 17:1032–1039CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Cole JD, Bushnell MC, McGlone F, Elam M, Lamarre Y, Vallbo AB, Olausson H (2006) Unmyelinated tactile afferents underpin detection of low-force monofilaments. Muscle Nerve 34:105–107CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Craig AD (2002) How do you feel? Interoception: the sense of the physiological condition of the body. Nat Rev Neurosci 3:655–666PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Craig AD (2008) Interoception and emotion: a neuroanatomical perspective. In: Lewis M, Haviland-Jones JM, Feldman Barrett L (eds) Handbook of emotion. The Guilford Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  22. Crusco AH, Wetzel CG (1984) The Midas touch: the effects of interpersonal touch on restaurant tipping. Personal Soc Psych Bull 10:512–517CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Danziger N, Prkachin KM, Willer JC (2006) Is pain the price of empathy? The perception of others’ pain in patients with congenital insensitivity to pain. Brain 129:2494–2507CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Danziger N, Faillenot I, Peyron R (2009) Can we share a pain we never felt? Neural correlates of empathy in patients with congenital insensitivity to pain. Neuron 61:203–212CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Depue RA, Morrone-Strupinsky JV (2005) A neurobehavioral model of affiliative bonding: implications for conceptualizing a human trait of affiliation. Behav Brain Sci 28:313–395PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Dibiase R, Gunnoe J (2004) Gender and culture differences in touching behavior. J Soc Psychol 144:49–62CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Drago F, Caldwell JD, Pedersen CA, Continella G, Scapagnini U, Prange AJ Jr (1986) Dopamine neurotransmission in the nucleus accumbens may be involved in oxytocin-enhanced grooming behavior of the rat. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 24:1185–1188CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Dunbar R (1996) Grooming, gossip, and the evolution of language. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MAGoogle Scholar
  29. Dunbar RI (2008) The social role of touch in humans and primates: behavioural function and neurobiological mechanisms. Neurosci Biobehav RevGoogle Scholar
  30. Ebisch SJ, Perrucci MG, Ferretti A, Del Gratta C, Romani GL, Gallese V (2008) The sense of touch: embodied simulation in a visuotactile mirroring mechanism for observed animate or inanimate touch. J Cogn Neurosci 20:1611–1623CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Emmers TM, Dindia K (1995) The effect of relational stage and intimacy on touch: an extension of Guerrero and Andersen. Personal Relatsh 2:225–236CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Essick GK, James A, McGlone FP (1999) Psychophysical assessment of the affective components of non-painful touch. Neuroreport. 10:2083–2087CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Fan Y, Han S (2008) Temporal dynamic of neural mechanisms involved in empathy for pain: an event-related brain potential study. Neuropsychologia 46:160–173CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Farrow TF, Zheng Y, Wilkinson ID, Spence SA, Deakin JF, Tarrier N, Griffiths PD, Woodruff PW (2001) Investigating the functional anatomy of empathy and forgiveness. Neuroreport 12:2433–2438CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Field T (2001) Touch. MIT Press, Cambridge, MAGoogle Scholar
  36. Fisher JD, Rytting M, Heslin R (1976) Hands touching hands: affective and evaluative effects of an interpersonal touch. Sociometry 39:416–421CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Francis S, Rolls ET, Bowtell R, McGlone F, O’Doherty J, Browning A, Clare S, Smith E (1999) The representation of pleasant touch in the brain and its relationship with taste and olfactory areas. Neuroreport 25:453–459CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Gallace A, Spence C (2008) The science of interpersonal touch: an overview. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. doi: 10.1016/j.neubiorev.2008.10.004
  39. Gallese V (2003) The manifold nature of interpersonal relations: the quest for a common mechanism. Philos Trans R Soc Lond Biol 358:517–528CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Gazzola V, Keysers C (2009) The observation and execution of actions share motor and somatosensory voxels in all tested subjects: single-subject analyses of unsmoothed fMRI data. Cereb Cortex 19:1239–1255CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Gray L, Watt L, Blass EM (2000) Skin-to-skin contact is analgesic in healthy newborns. Pediatrics 105(1):e14CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Gu X, Han S (2007a) Attention and reality constraints on the neural processes of empathy for pain. Neuroimage 36:256–267CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Gu X, Han S (2007b) Neural substrates underlying evaluation of pain in actions depicted in words. Behav Brain Res 181:218–223CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Guest S, Essick G, Dessirier JM, Blot K, Lopetcharat K, McGlone F (2009) Sensory and affective judgments of skin during inter- and intrapersonal touch. Acta Psychol (Amst). 130:115–126CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Harlow HF (1958) The nature of love. Am Psychol 13:335–346CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Hertenstein MJ, Verkamp JM, Kerestes AM, Holmes RM (2006a) The communicative functions of touch in humans, nonhuman primates, and rats: a review and synthesis of the empirical research. Genet Soc Gen Psychol Monogr 132:5–94CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Hertenstein MJ, Keltner D, App B, Bulleit BA, Jaskolka AR (2006b) Touch communicates distinct emotions. Emotion 6:528–533CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Heslin R, Alper T (1983) Touch: a bonding gesture. In: Wiemann JM, Harrison RP (eds) Nonverbal interaction. Sage, Beverly HillsGoogle Scholar
  49. Hofbauer RK, Rainville P, Duncan GH, Bushnell MC (2001) Cortical representation of the sensory dimension of pain. J Neurophysiol 86:402–411PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Hornik J (1992) Tactile stimulation and consumer response. J Consum Res 19:449–458CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Hutchison WD, Davis KD, Lozano AM, Tasker RR, Dostrovsky JO (1999) Pain-related neurons in the human cingulate cortex. Nat Neurosci 2:403–405CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Jackson PL, Meltzoff AN, Decety J (2005) How do we perceive the pain of others? Neuroimage 24:771–779CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Jackson PL, Brunet E, Meltzoff AN, Decety J (2006a) Empathy examined through the neural mechanisms involved in imagining how I feel versus how you would feel pain: an event-related fMRI study. Neuropsychologia 44:752–761CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Jackson PL, Rainville P, Decety J (2006b) To what extent do we share the pain of others? Insight from the neural bases of pain empathy. Pain 125:5–9CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Johansson RS, Vallbo AB (1979) Tactile sensibility in the human hand: relative and absolute densities of four types of mechanoreceptive units in glabrous skin. J Physiol 286:283–300PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Joule RV, Guéguen N (2007) Touch, compliance, and awareness of tactile contact. Percept Mot Skills 104:581–588CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Keverne EB, Martensz ND, Tuite B (1989) Beta-endorphin concentrations in cerebrospinal fluid of monkeys are influenced by grooming relationships. Psychoneuroendocrinology 14:155–161CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Keysers C, Wicker B, Gazzola V, Anton JL, Fogassi L, Gallese V (2004) A touching sight: SII/PV activation during the observation and experience of touch. Neuron 42:335–346CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Kleinke CL (1977) Compliance to requests made by gazing and touching experimenters in field settings. J Exp Soc Psych 13:218–223CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Kulkarni B, Bentley DE, Elliott R, Youell P, Watson A, Derbyshire SWG, Frackowiak RSJ, Friston KJ, Jones AKP (2005) Attention to pain localization and unpleasantness discriminates the functions of the medial and lateral pain systems. Eur J Neurosci 21:3133–3142CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Lamm C, Nusbaum HC, Meltzoff AN, Decety J (2007) What are you feeling? Using functional magnetic resonance imaging to assess the modulation of sensory and affective responses during empathy for pain. PLoS One 2:e1292CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Lamm C, Porges EC, Cacioppo JT, Decety J (2008) Perspective taking is associated with specific facial responses during empathy for pain. Brain Res 1227:153–161CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Lamm C, Meltzoff AN, Decety J (2009) How do we empathize with someone who is not like us? A functional magnetic resonance imaging study. J Cogn Neurosci (in press)Google Scholar
  64. Lawrence EJ, Shaw P, Giampietro VP, Surguladze S, Brammer MJ, David AS (2006) The role of ‘shared representations’ in social perception and empathy: an fMRI study. Neuroimage 29:1173–1184CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Lehmann J, Korstjens AH, Dunbar RIM (2007) Group size, grooming and social cohesion in primates. Anim Behav 74:1617–1629CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Liu Q, Vrontou S, Rice FL, Zylka MJ, Dong X, Anderson DJ (2007) Molecular genetic visualization of a rare subset of unmyelinated sensory neurons that may detect gentle touch. Nat Neurosci 10:946–948CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Lloyd DM, Morrison I, Roberts N (2006) Role for human posterior parietal cortex in visual processing of aversive objects in peripersonal space. J Neurophysiol 95:205–214CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Loggia ML, Mogil JS, Bushnell MC (2008) Empathy hurts: compassion for another increases both sensory and affective components of pain perception. Pain 136:168–176CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Löken LS, Wessberg J, Morrison I, McGlone F, Olausson H (2009) Coding of pleasant touch by unmyelinated afferents in humans. Nat Neurosci 5:547–548CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Löken LS, Wessberg J, Olausson HW (2007) Unmyelinated tactile (CT) afferents are present in the human peroneal and radial nerves. Program no. 827.2/KK8, Neuroscience meeting planner. Society for Neuroscience, Washington (online)Google Scholar
  71. Löken LS, Minde J, Olausson H, Morrison I (2008) Altered perception of pleasant touch in patients with congenital C-fiber reduction. Program no. 775.15/OO8, Neuroscience meeting planner. Society for Neuroscience, Washington (online)Google Scholar
  72. Lovero KL, Simmons AN, Aron JL, Paulus MP (2009) Anterior insular cortex anticipates impending stimulus significance. Neuroimage 45:976–983CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Martel F, Nevison C, Simpson M, Keverne E (1995) Effects of opioid receptor blockade on the social behavior of rhesus monkeys living in large family groups. Dev Psychobiol 28:71–84CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. McCabe C, Rolls ET, Bilderbeck A, McGlone F (2008) Cognitive influences on the affective representation of touch and the sight of touch in the human brain. Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci 3:97–108CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. McGlone F, Vallbo AB, Loken L, Wessberg J (2007) Discriminative touch and emotional touch. Can J Exp Psych 61:173–183Google Scholar
  76. Menard JL, Champagne DL, Meaney MJ (2004) Variations of maternal care differentially influence ‘fear’ reactivity and regional patterns of cFos immunoreactivity in response to the shock-probe burying test. Neuroscience 129:297–308CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Minde J, Toolanen G, Andersson T, Nennesmo I, Remahl IN, Svensson O, Solders G (2004) Familial insensitivity to pain (HSAN V) and a mutation in the NGFB gene. A neurophysiological and pathological study. Muscle Nerve 30:752–760CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Moriguchi Y, Decety J, Ohnishi T, Maeda M, Mori T, Nemoto K et al (2007) Empathy and judging other’s pain: a fMRI study of alexithymia. Cereb Cortex 17:223–2234Google Scholar
  79. Morrison I (2007) Motivational-affective processing and the neural foundations of empathy. In: Farrow T, Woodruff P (eds) Empathy in mental illness, health. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 335–359CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Morrison I, Downing PD (2007) Organization of felt and seen pain responses in anterior cingulate cortex. Neuroimage 37:642–651CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Morrison I, Lloyd DM, di Pellegrino G, Roberts N (2004) Vicarious responses to pain in anterior cingulate cortex: is empathy a multisensory issue? Cogn Affect Behav Neurosci 4:270–278CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Morrison I, Poliakoff E, Gordon L, Roberts N (2006) Response-specific effects of pain observation on motor behavior. Cognition 104:407–416CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Morrison I, Peelen MV, Downing PD (2007a) The sight of others’ pain modulates motor processing in cingulate cortex. Cereb Cortex 17:2214–2222CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Morrison I, Bach P, Tipper S (2007b) Selective responses in SII for observed pain and action. In: Cognitive neuroscience society annual meeting. MIT Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  85. Morrison I, Löken LS, Olausson H (2008) Felt and seen social touch: the role of the insula. Program no. 789.5/SS70, Neuroscience meeting planner. Society for Neuroscience, Washington (online)Google Scholar
  86. Nelson H, Geher G (2007) Mutual grooming in human dyadic relationships: an ethological perspective. Curr Psychol 26:121–140CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Nordin M (1990) Low threshold mechanoreceptive and nociceptive units with unmyelinated (C) fibres in the human supraorbital nerve. J Physiol 426:229–240PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Ogino Y, Nemoto H, Inui K, Saito S, Kakigi R, Goto F (2007) Inner experience of pain: imagination of pain while viewing images showing painful events forms subjective pain representation in human brain. Cereb Cortex 17:1139–1146CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Olausson H, Lamarre Y, Backlund H, Morin C, Wallin BG, Starck G, Ekholm S, Strigo I, Worsely K, Vallbo ÅB, Bushnell MC (2002) Unmyelinated tactile afferents signal touch and project to insular cortex. Nat Neurosci 5:900–904CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Olausson H, Wessberg J, Morrison I, McGlone F, Vallbo A (2008a) The neurophysiology of unmyelinated tactile afferents. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. doi: 10.1016/j.neubiorev.2008.09.011
  91. Olausson H, Cole J, Vallbo Å, McGlone F, Elam M, Krämer HH, Rylander K, Wessberg J, Elam M, Bushnell MC (2008b) Unmyelinated tactile afferents have opposite effects on insular and somatosensory cortical processing. Neurosci Lett 436:128–132CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Olausson H, Cole J, Rylander K, McGlone F, Lamarre Y, Wallin BG, Krämer HH, Wessberg J, Elam M, Bushnell MC, Vallbo A (2008c) Functional role of unmyelinated tactile afferents in human hairy skin: sympathetic response and perceptual localization. Exp Brain Res 184:135–140CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Panksepp J, Burgdorf J (2003) “Laughing” rats and the evolutionary antecedents of human joy? Physiol Behav 79:533–547CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Paulus M (2007) Neural basis of reward and craving—a homeostatic point of view. Dialogues Clin Neurosci 9:379–387PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Peláez-Nogueras M, Field TM, Gewirtz JL, Cigales M, Gonzalez A, Sanchez A et al (1997) The effects of systematic stroking versus tickling and poking on infant behavior. J Appl Dev Psychol 18:169–178CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Rainville P, Duncan GH, Price DD, Carrier B, Bushnell MC (1997) Pain affect encoded in human anterior cingulate but not somatosensory cortex. Science 277:968–971CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Saarela MV, Hlushchuk Y, Williams AC, Schurmann M, Kalso E, Hari R (2007) The compassionate brain: humans detect pain intensity from another’s face. Cereb Cortex 17:230–237CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Serino A, Haggard P (2009) Touch and the body. Neurosci Biobehav RevGoogle Scholar
  99. Singer T, Seymour B, O’Doherty J, Kaube H, Dolan RJ, Frith CD (2004) Empathy for pain involves the affective but not sensory components of pain. Science 20:1157–1162CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Singer T, Seymour B, O’Doherty JP, Stephan KE, Dolan RJ, Frith CD (2006) Empathic neural responses are modulated by the perceived fairness of others. Nature. 439:466–469CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Singer T, Snozzi R, Bird G, Petrovic P, Silani G, Heinrichs M, Dolan RJ (2008) Effects of oxytocin and prosocial behavior on brain responses to direct and vicariously experienced pain. Emotion 8:781–791CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Sparks J (1967) Allogrooming in primates: a review. In: Morris D (ed) Primate ethology. Weidenfeld and Nicholson, LondonGoogle Scholar
  103. Sullivan MJ, Martel MO, Tripp DA, Savard A, Crombez G (2006) Catastrophic thinking and heightened perception of pain in others. Pain 123:37–44CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Vallbo ÅB, Olausson H, Wessberg J (1999) Unmyelinated afferents constitute a second system coding tactile stimuli of the human hairy skin. J Neurophysiol 81:2753–2763PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Vallbo Å, Olausson H, Wessberg H (2007) Pleasant touch. In: Squire LR (ed) Encyclopedia of neuroscience. Academic Press, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  106. Warren J (2002) Goosebumps and the insula. Lancet 360:1978CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Wessberg J, Olausson H, Fernstrom KW, Vallbo AB (2003) Receptive field properties of unmyelinated tactile afferents in the human skin. J Neurophysiol 89:1567–1575CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • India Morrison
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Line S. Löken
    • 1
    • 2
  • Håkan Olausson
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Institute for Neuroscience and PhysiologyGöteborg UniversityGöteborgSweden
  2. 2.Department of Clinical Neurophysiology, Sahlgrenska University HospitalGöteborg UniversityGöteborgSweden

Personalised recommendations