Advertisement

Experimental Brain Research

, Volume 190, Issue 3, pp 239–249 | Cite as

Response preparation changes following practice of an asymmetrical bimanual movement

  • Dana Maslovat
  • Anthony N. Carlsen
  • Ryu Ishimoto
  • Romeo Chua
  • Ian M. Franks
Research Article

Abstract

The purpose of the current study was to examine the effects of practice on the advance preparation of an asymmetrical bimanual movement. Participants performed 170 trials of a discrete bimanual aiming movement where the right arm moved twice the amplitude of the left, in response to an auditory “go” signal. During three of the first and last ten trials, the “go” signal was replaced with a startle (124 dB) stimulus, which is thought to trigger a prepared movement. Startle and non-startle (control) trials from early and late practice were compared on various kinematic and EMG measures. Results indicated that it is possible to pre-program a bimanual asymmetrical movement, and that advance preparation of movement amplitude changes with practice. Evidence was also provided that the different amplitude movements were performed using similar EMG timing between limbs, while adjusting the relative ratio of EMG amplitude. Furthermore, learning of the task appeared to be related to the ability to prepare the correct asymmetrical EMG amplitudes rather than changing the timing of the EMG pattern.

Keywords

Response preparation Programming Practice Bimanual Startle 

Notes

Acknowledgements

A Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada grant was awarded to Ian M. Franks. We would also like to recognize Paul Nagelkerke for his technical support.

References

  1. Abrams RA, Pratt J (1993) Rapid aimed limb movements: differential effects of practice on component submovements. J Mot Behav 25:288–298PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Carlsen AN, Chua R, Inglis JT, Sanderson DJ, Franks IM (2003) Startle response is dishabituated during a reaction time task. Exp Brain Res 152:510–518PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Carlsen AN, Chua R, Inglis JT, Sanderson DJ, Franks IM (2004a) Can prepared responses be stored subcortically? Exp Brain Res 159:301–309PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Carlsen AN, Chua R, Inglis JT, Sanderson DJ, Franks IM (2004b) Prepared movements are elicited early by startle. J Mot Behav 36:253–264PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Carlsen AN, Dakin C, Chua R, Franks IM (2007) Startle produces early response latencies that are distinct from stimulus intensity effects. Exp Brain Res 176:199–205PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Carlsen AN, Chua R, Dakin DJ, Inglis JT, Sanderson DJ, Franks IM (2008a) Startle reveals an absence of advance motor programming in a Go/No-go task. Neurosci Lett 434:61–65PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Carlsen AN, Chua R, Inglis JT, Sanderson DJ, Franks IM (2008b) Effect of startle and response complexity on motor preparation and reaction time. Paper presented as a poster at NASPSPA, Niagara Falls, CanadaGoogle Scholar
  8. Corcos DM, Gottlieb GL, Agarwal GC (1989) Organizing principles for single-joint movements. II. A speed-sensitive strategy. J Neurophysiol 62:358–368PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Cressman EK, Carlsen AN, Chua R, Franks IM (2006) Temporal uncertainty does not affect response latencies of movements produced during startle reactions. Exp Brain Res 171:278–282PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Fischman MG, Lim CH (1991) Influence of extended practice on programming time, movement time, and transfer in simple target-striking responses. J Mot Behav 23:39–50PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Fowler B, Duck T, Mosher M, Mathieson B (1991) The coordination of bimanual aiming movements: evidence for progressive desynchronization. Q J Exp Psychol A 43:205–221PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Gabriel DA, Boucher JP (1998) Practice effects on the timing and magnitude of antagonist activity during ballistic elbow flexion to a target. Res Q Exerc Sport 69:30–37PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Gabriel DA, Boucher JP (2000) Practicing a maximal performance task: a cooperative strategy for muscle activity. Res Q Exerc Sport 71:217–228PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Gottlieb GL, Corcos DM, Jaric S, Agarwal GC (1988) Practice improves even the simplest movement. Exp Brain Res 73:436–440PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Gottlieb GL, Corcos DM, Agarwal GC (1989a) Organizing principles for single-joint movements. I. A speed-insensitive strategy. J Neurophysiol 62:342–357PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Gottlieb GL, Corcos DM, Agarwal GC (1989b) Strategies for the control of voluntary movements with one mechanical degree of freedom. Behav Brain Sci 12:189–210CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Heuer H (1986) Intermanual interactions during programming of aimed movements: converging evidence on common and specific parameters of control. Psychol Res 48:37–46CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Heuer H (1993) Structural constraints on bimanual movements. Psychol Res 55:83–98PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Heuer H, Klein W (2005) Intermanual interactions in discrete and periodic bimanual movements with same and different amplitudes. Exp Brain Res 167:220–237PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Heuer H, Klein W (2006) Intermanual interactions related to movement amplitudes and endpoint locations. J Mot Behav 38:126–138PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Heuer H, Spijkers W, Kleinsorge T, van der Loo H, Steglich C (1998) The time course of cross-talk during the simultaneous specification of bimanual movement amplitudes. Exp Brain Res 118:381–392PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Kelso JAS, Southard DL, Goodman D (1979) On the nature of human interlimb coordination. Science 203:1029–1031PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Khan MA, Franks IM, Goodman D (1998) The effect of practice on the control of rapid aiming movements: evidence for an interdependency between programming and feedback processing. Q J Exp Psychol A 51:425–444CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Khan MA, Garry MI, Franks IM (1999) The effect of target size and inertial load on the control of rapid aiming movements. Exp Brain Res 124:151–158PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Klapp ST (1995) Motor response programming during simple and choice reaction time: the role of practice. J Exp Psychol Hum Percept Perform 21:1015–1027CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Klapp ST (1996) Reaction time analysis of central motor control. In: Zelaznik HN (ed) Advances in motor learning and control. Human Kinetics, Champaign, pp 13–35Google Scholar
  27. Kumru H, Valls-Solé J (2006) Excitability of the pathways mediating the startle reaction before execution of a voluntary movement. Exp Brain Res 169:427–432PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Latash ML, Gottlieb GL (1991) An equilibrium-point model for fast, single-joint movement: II. Similarity of single-joint isometric and isotonic descending commands. J Mot Behav 23:179–191PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Liang N, Yamashita T, Ni Z, Takahashi M, Murakami T, Yahagi S, Kasai T (2008) Temporal modulations of agonist and antagonist muscle activities accompanying improved performance of ballistic movements. Hum Mov Sci 27:12–28PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. MacKinnon CD, Bissig D, Chiusano J, Miller E, Rudnick L, Jager C, Zhang Y, Mille M-L, Rogers MW (2007) Preparation of anticipatory postural adjustments prior to stepping. J Neurophysiol 97:4368–4379PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Marteniuk RG, MacKenzie CL (1980) A preliminary theory of two-hand coordinated control. In: Stelmach GE, Requin J (eds) Tutorials in motor behavior. North-Holland, Amsterdam, pp 185–197CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Marteniuk RG, MacKenzie CL, Baba DM (1984) Bimanual movement control: information processing and interaction effects. Q J Exp Psychol A 36:335–365Google Scholar
  33. Piéron H (1920) Nouvelles recherches sur l’analyse du temps de latence sensorielle et sur la loi qui relie ce temps a l’intensité de l’excitation. Annee Psychol 22:58–142Google Scholar
  34. Pratt J, Abrams RA (1996) Practice and component submovements: The roles of programming and feedback in rapid aimed limb movements. J Mot Behav 28:149–156PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Rothwell JC (2006) The startle reflex, voluntary movement, and the reticulospinal tract. In: Cruccu G, Hallett M (eds) Brainstem function and dysfunction. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 221–229Google Scholar
  36. Schmidt RA, Lee TD (2005) Motor control and learning: a behavioral emphasis, 4th edn. Human Kinetics, ChampaignGoogle Scholar
  37. Schmidt RA, Zelaznik HN, Hawkins B, Frank JS, Quinn JT (1979) Motor-output variability: a theory for the accuracy of rapid motor acts. Psychol Rev 86:415–451CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Schmidt RA, Heuer H, Ghodsian D, Young DE (1997) Generalized motor programs and units of action in bimanual coordination. In: Latash M (ed) Bernstein’s traditions in motor control. Erlbaum, HillsdaleGoogle Scholar
  39. Sherwood DE (1990) Practice and assimilation effects in a multilimb aiming task. J Mot Behav 22:267–291PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Sherwood DE (1991) Distance and location assimilation effects in rapid bimanual movement. Res Q Exerc Sport 62:302–308PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Sherwood DE (1994) Hand preference, practice order, and spatial assimilations in rapid bimanual movement. J Mot Behav 26:123–134PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Sherwood DE, Nishimura K (1992) EMG amplitude and spatial assimilation effects in rapid bimanual movement. Res Q Exerc Sport 63:284–291PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Siegmund GP, Inglis JT, Sanderson DJ (2001) Startle response of human neck muscles sculpted by readiness to perform ballistic head movements. J Physiol 535:289–300PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Spijkers W, Heuer H (1995) Structural constraints on the performance of symmetrical bimanual movements with different amplitudes. Q J Exp Psychol A 48:716–740Google Scholar
  45. Spijkers W, Tachmatzidis K, Debus G, Fischer M, Kausche I (1994) Temporal coordination of alternative and simultaneous aiming movements of constrained timing structure. Psychol Res 57:20–29PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Spijkers W, Heuer H, Kleinsorge T, van der Loo H (1997) Preparation of bimanual movements with same and different amplitudes: specification interference as revealed by reaction time. Acta Psychol 96:207–227CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Valls-Solé J, Solé A, Valldeoriola F, Muñoz E, Gonzalez LE, Tolosa ES (1995) Reaction time and acoustic startle in normal human subjects. Neurosci Lett 195:97–100PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Valls-Solé J, Rothwell JC, Goulart F, Cossu G, Muñoz E (1999) Patterned ballistic movements triggered by a startle in healthy humans. J Physiol 516.3:931–938CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Verwey WB (1999) Evidence for a multistage model of practice in a sequential movement task. J Exp Psychol Human Percept Perform 25:1693–1708CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Wadman WJ, van der Denier Gon JJ, Geuze RH, Mol CR (1979) Control of fast goal-directed arm movements. J Hum Mov Stud 5:3–17Google Scholar
  51. Young DE, Schmidt RA (1991) Motor programs as units of movement control. In: Badler NI, Barsky BA, Zeltzer D (eds) Making them move: mechanics, control and animation of articulated figures. New York, pp 129–155Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Dana Maslovat
    • 1
  • Anthony N. Carlsen
    • 1
  • Ryu Ishimoto
    • 1
  • Romeo Chua
    • 1
  • Ian M. Franks
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Human Kinetics, War Memorial GymnasiumUniversity of British ColumbiaVancouverCanada

Personalised recommendations