Advertisement

Experimental Brain Research

, Volume 185, Issue 1, pp 1–10 | Cite as

Age-related differences in corrected and inhibited pointing movements

  • Stéphanie Rossit
  • Monika HarveyEmail author
Research Article

Abstract

It has been widely reported that aging is accompanied by a decline in motor skill performance and in particular, it has been shown that older subjects take longer to adapt their ongoing reach in response to a target location shift. In the present experiment, we investigated the influence of aging on the ability to perform trajectory corrections in response to a target jump, but also assessed inhibition by asking a younger and an older group of participants to either adapt or stop their ongoing movement in response to a target location change. Results showed that although older subjects took longer to initiate, execute, correct and inhibit an ongoing reach, they performed both tasks with the same level of accuracy as the younger sample. Moreover, the slowing was also observed when older subjects were asked to point to stationary targets. Our findings thus indicate that aging does not specifically influence the ability to perform or inhibit fast online corrections to target location changes, but rather produces a general slowing and increased variability of movement planning, initiation and execution to both perturbed and stationary targets. For the first time, we demonstrate that aging is not accompanied by a decrease in the inhibition of motor control.

Keywords

Aging Double-step paradigm Online corrections Inhibitory motor control 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We are very grateful to Robert McIntosh for the stimulus presentation and analysis programmes. We also thank Stephen H Butler for technical support at the setup stage and David Carey and Thomas Schenk for most constructive comments on an earlier version of this manuscript. This work was funded by a grant (SFRH/BD/23230/2005) from the Foundation for Science and Technology (FCT, Portugal) to S. Rossit.

References

  1. Annett M (1967) The binomial distribution of right, mixed and left handedness. Q J Exp Psychol 19:327–333PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Aron AR, Poldrack RA (2006) Cortical and subcortical contributions to stop signal response inhibition: role of the subthalamic nucleus. J Neurosci 26:2424–2433PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Booth FW, Weeden SH, Tseng BS (1994) Effect of aging on human skeletal muscle and motor function. Med Sci Sport Exerc 26:556–560Google Scholar
  4. Buchamn AS, Wilson RS, Boyle PA, Bienias J, Bennett D (2007) Change in motor function and risk of mortality in older persons. J Am Geriatr Soc 55:11–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Calautti C, Serrati C, Baron J-C (2001) Effects of age on brain activation during auditory-cued thumb-to-index opposition: a positron emission tomography study. Stroke 32:139–146PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Carey D, Hargreaves EL, Goodale MA (1996) Reaching to ipsilateral or contralateral targets: within-hemisphere visuomotor processing cannot explain hemispatial differences in motor control. Exp Brain Res 112:496–504PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Castiello U, Paulignan Y, Jeannerod M (1991) Temporal dissociation of motor responses and subjective awareness: a study in normal subjects. Brain 114:2639–2655PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Chao LL, Knight RT (1997) Prefrontal deficits in attention and inhibitory motor control with aging. Cereb Cortex 7:63–69PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Chua R, Enns JT (2005) What the hand can’t tell the eye: illusion of space constancy during accurate pointing. Exp Brain Res 162:109–114PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Colcombe AM, Kramer AF, Irwin D E, Peterson MS, Colcombe S, Hahn S (2003) Age-related effects of attentional and oculomotor capture by onsets and colour singletons as a function of experience. Acta Psychol 113:205–225CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Curtis CE, Cole MW, Rao VY, D’Esposito M (2004) Cancelling planned action: an fMRI study of countermanding saccades. Cereb Cortex 15:1281–1289PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Cressman EK, Franks IM, Enns JT, Chua R (2006) No automatic pilot for visually guided aiming based on colour. Exp Brain Res 171:174–183PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Day BL, Lyon IN (2000) Voluntary modification of automatic arm movements evoked by motion of a visual target. Exp Brain Res 130:159–168PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Eenshuistra RM, Ridderinkhof KR, van der Molen MW (2004) Age-related changes in antisaccade task performance: inhibitory control or working-memory engagement? Brain Cogn 56:177–188PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Fecteau JH, Chua R, Franks I, Enns JT (2001) Visual awareness and on-line modification of action. Can J Exp Psychol 55:106–112Google Scholar
  16. Goodale MA, Milner AD (2005) Sight unseen: an exploration of conscious and unconscious vision. Oxford University Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  17. Goodale MA, Pélisson D, Prablanc C (1986) Large adjustments in visually guided reaching do not depend on vision of the hand or perception of target displacement. Nature 320:748–750PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Gréa H, Pisella L, Rossetti Y, Desmurget M, Tilikete C, Grafton S, Prablanc C, Vighetto A (2002) A lesion of the posterior parietal cortex disrupts on-line adjustments during aiming movements. Neuropsychologia 40:2471–2480PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Haaland KY, Harrington DL, Grice JW (1993) Effects of aging in planning and implementing arm movements. Psychol Aging 8:617–632PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Heuninckx S, Wenderoth N, Debaere F, Peeters R, Swinnen SP (2005) Neural basis of aging: the penetration of cognition into action control. J Neurosci 25:6787–6796PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Hutchinson S, Kobayashi M, Horkan CM, Pascual-Leone A, Alexander MP, Schlaug G (2002) Age-related differences in movement representation. Neuroimage 17:1720–1728PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Johnson H, Van Beers RJ, Haggard P (2002) Action and awareness in pointing tasks. Exp Brain Res 146:451–459PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Kok A (2000) Age-related changes in involuntary and voluntary attention as reflected in components of the event-related potential (ERP). Biol Psychol 54:107–143PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Kramer AF, Hahn S, Irwin DE, Theeuwes J (1999) Attentional capture and aging: implications for visual search performance and oculomotor control. Psychol Aging 14:135–154PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Kramer AF, Humphrey D, Larish J, Logan G, Strayer D (1994) Aging and inhibition: beyond a unitary view of inhibitory processing in attention. Psychol Aging 9:491–512PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Kramer AF, Hahn S, Irwin DE, Theeuwes J (2000) Age differences in the control of looking behaviour: do you know where the eyes have been? Psychol Sci 11:210–217PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Lincort AE, Folk CL, Hoyer WJ (1997) Effects of aging on voluntary and involuntary shifts of attention. Aging Neuropsychol Cogn 4:290–303CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Mattay VS, Fera F, Tessitore A, Hariri AR, Das S, Callicott JH, Weinderger DR (2002) Neurophysiological correlates of age-related changes in motor function. Neurology 58:630–635PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Mirabella G, Pani P, Paré M, Ferraina S (2006) Inhibitory control of reaching movements in humans. Exp Brain Res 174:240–255PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Nielson KA, Langenecker SA, Garavan H (2002) Differences in the functional neuroanatomy of inhibitory control across the life span. Psychol Aging 17:56–71PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Olincy A, Ross RG, Young DA, Freedman R (1997) Age diminishes performance on an antisaccade eye movement task. Neurobio Aging 18:483–489CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Paulignan Y, MacKenzie C, Marteniuk R, Jeannerod M (1991) Selective perturbation of visual input during prehension movements. I. The effects of changing object position. Exp Brain Res 83:502–512PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Pélisson D, Prablanc C, Goodale MA, Jeannerod M (1986) Visual control of reaching movements without vision of the limb. II. Evidence for fast unconscious processes correcting the trajectory of the hand to the final position of a double-step stimulus. Exp Brain Res 62:303–311PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Phillips LH, Della Sala S (1998) Aging, intelligence and anatomical segregation in the frontal lobes. Learn Individ Differ 10:217–243CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Pisella L, Gréa H, Tilikete C, Vighetto A, Desmurget M, Rode G, Boisson D, Rossetti Y (2000) An ‘automatic pilot’ for the hand in human posterior parietal cortex: toward reinterpreting optic ataxia. Nature 3:729–735Google Scholar
  36. Plotnik M, Flash T, Inzelberg R, Schechtman, Korczyn AD (1998) Motor switching abilities in Parkinson’s disease and old age: temporal aspects. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 65:328–337PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Potter LM, Grealy MA (2006) Aging and inhibitory error on a motor shift of set task. Exp Brain Res 171:56–66PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Potter LM, Grealy MA (2007) Aging and inhibition of a prepotent motor response during an ongoing action. Aging Neuropsychol Cogn (in press)Google Scholar
  39. Prablanc C, Martin O (1992) Automatic control during hand reaching at undetected two-dimensional target displacements. J Neurophysiol 67:455–469PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Pratt J, Bellomo CN (1999) Attentional capture in younger and older adults. Aging Neuropsychol Cogn 6:19–31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Pratt J, Chasteen AL, Abrams RA (1994) Rapid aimed limb movements: age differences and practise effects in component submovements. Psychol Aging 9:325–334PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Salthouse TA (1979) Adult age and the speed/accuracy tradeoff. Ergonomics 22:811–821PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Salthouse TA (2000) Aging and measures of processing speed. Biol Psychol 54:35–54PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Sarlegna FR (2006) Impairment of online control of reaching movements with aging: a double-step study. Neurosci Lett 403:309–314PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Schall JD (2001) Neural basis of deciding, choosing and acting. Nat Neurosci 2:33–42Google Scholar
  46. Schall JD, Hanes DP, Taylor TL (2000) Neural control of behavior: countermanding eye movements. Psychol Res 63:299–307PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Schall JD, Stuphron V, Brown JW (2002) Monitoring and control of action by the frontal lobes. Neuron 36:309–322PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Verhaeghen P, Cerella J (2002) Aging, executive control, and attention: a review of meta-analysis. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 26:849–857PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Walker N, Philbin DA, Fisk AD (1997) Age-related differences in movement control: adjusting submovement structure to optimize performance. J Gerontol Psychol Sci 52:40–52Google Scholar
  50. Ward NS, Frackowiak RSJ (2003) Age-related changes in the neural correlates of motor performance. Brain 126:873–888PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Welford AT, Norris AH, Shock NW (1969) Speed and accuracy of movement and their changes with age. Acta Psychol 30:3–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. West R (1996) An application of prefrontal cortex function theory to cognitive aging. Psychol Bull 120:272–292PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Wu T, Hallett M (2005) The influence of normal ageing on automatic movements. J Physiol 562:605–615PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Yan JH (2000) Effects of aging in linear and curvilinear arm movements. Exp Aging Res 26:393–407PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Yan JH, Thomas JR, Stelmach GE (1998) Aging and rapid aiming arm movement control. Exp Aging Res 24:155–168PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Yordanova J, Kolev V, Hohnsbein J, Falkenstein M (2004) Sensorimotor slowing with aging is mediated by a functional dysregulation of motor-generation processes: evidence from high-resolution event-related potentials. Brain 127:351–362PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PsychologyUniversity of GlasgowGlasgowScotland, UK

Personalised recommendations