Vestibular contribution to the planning of reach trajectories
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Reaching for an object while simultaneously rotating induces Coriolis and centrifugal inertial forces on the arm that require compensatory actions to maintain accuracy. We investigated whether the nervous system uses vestibular signals of head rotation to predict inertial forces. Human subjects reached in darkness to a remembered target 33 cm distant. Subjects were stationary, but experienced a strong vestibular rotation signal. We achieved this by rotating subjects at 360°/s in yaw for 2 min and then stopping, and subjects reached during the ‘post-rotary’ period when the deceleration is interpreted by the vestibular system as a rotation in the opposite direction. Arm trajectories were straight in control trials without a rotary stimulus. With vestibular stimulation, trajectory curvature increased an average of 3 cm in the direction of the vestibular stimulation (e.g., to the right for a rightward yaw stimulus). Vestibular-induced curvature returned rapidly to normal, with an average time constant of 6 s. Movements also became longer as the vestibular stimulus diminished, and returned towards normal length with an average time constant of 5.6 s. In a second experiment we compared reaching with preferred and non-preferred hands, and found that they were similarly affected by vestibular stimulation. The reach curvatures were in the expected direction if the nervous system anticipated and attempted to counteract the presence of Coriolis forces based on the vestibular signals. Similarly, the shorter reaches may have occurred because the nervous system was attempting to compensate for an expected centrifugal force. Since vestibular stimulation also alters the perceived location of targets, vestibular signals probably influence all stages of the sensorimotor pathway transforming the desired goal of a reach into specific motor-unit innervation.
KeywordsVestibular system Reaching Motor control Inertial forces Coriolis Centrifugal
We thank A. Züger for excellent technical support. Supported by the Swiss National Science Foundation [3100–063669], the Olga-Mayenfisch Foundation, the Hartmann-Mueller Foundation, and the Betty and David Koetser Foundation for Brain Research, Zürich, Switzerland.
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