Experimental Brain Research

, Volume 177, Issue 2, pp 209–222 | Cite as

Independent roles for the dorsal paraflocculus and vermal lobule VII of the cerebellum in visuomotor coordination

  • Ines Kralj-Hans
  • Joan S. Baizer
  • Catherine Swales
  • Mitchell Glickstein
Research Article

Abstract

Two distinct areas of cerebellar cortex, vermal lobule VII and the dorsal paraflocculus (DPFl) receive visual input. To help understand the visuomotor functions of these two regions, we compared their afferent and efferent connections using the tracers wheatgerm agglutinin horseradish peroxidase (WGA-HRP) and biotinilated dextran amine (BDA). The sources of both mossy fibre and climbing fibre input to the two areas are different. The main mossy fibre input to lobule VII is from the nucleus reticularis tegmenti pontis (NRTP), which relays visual information from the superior colliculus, while the main mossy fibre input to the DPFl is from the pontine nuclei, relaying information from cortical visual areas. The DPFl and lobule VII both also receive mossy fibre input from several common brainstem regions, but from different subsets of cells. These include visual input from the dorsolateral pons, and vestibular–oculomotor input from the medial vestibular nucleus (MVe) and the nucleus prepositus hypoglossi (Nph). The climbing fibre input to the two cerebellar regions is from different subdivisions of the inferior olivary nuclei. Climbing fibres from the caudal medial accessory olive (cMAO) project to lobule VII, while the rostral MAO (rMAO) and the principal olive (PO) project to the DPFl. The efferent projections from lobule VII and the DPF1 are to all of the recognised oculomotor and visual areas within the deep cerebellar nuclei, but to separate territories. Both regions play a role in eye movement control. The DPFl may also have a role in visually guided reaching.

Keywords

Saccades Smooth pursuit Superior colliculus Visual cortex Fastigial nucleus Interpositus nucleus Dentate nucleus 

Abbreviations

3N

Nucleus of the third (oculomotor) cranial nerve

4N

Nucleus of the fourth (trochlear) cranial nerve

VII, VIII, IX

Vermal lobules

12N

Hypoglossal (12th) nerve nucleus

gVII

Genu of the facial (seventh) nerve

Cr I

Cerebellar hemisphere Crus I

Cr II

Cerebellar hemisphere Crus II

DPFl

Dorsal paraflocculus

EOLRt

Epi-olivary lateral reticular nucleus

Fl

flocculus

Inferior olivary complex

β

Beta subnucleus

DAO

Dorsal accessory olive

dc

Dorsal cap

dmcc

Dorsomedial cell column

MAO

Medial accessory olive

cMAO

Caudal MAO

rMAO

Rostral MAO

PO

Principal olive

dlPO

Dorsal lamella of the principal olive

vlPO

Ventral lamella of the principal olive

vlo

Ventrolateral outgrowth

IPN

Interpeduncular nucleus

LVN

Lateral vestibular nucleus

MVe

Medial vestibular nucleus

Cerebellar nuclei

NL

Lateral cerebellar (dentate) nucleus

NIA

Anterior interposed cerebellar nucleus

NIP

Posterior interposed cerebellar nucleus

NM

Medial (fastigial) cerebellar nucleus

Nph

Nucleus prepositus hypoglossi

Nrgc

Nucleus reticularis gigantocellularis

Nrpa

Dorsal raphé nucleus

Nrpc

Nucleus reticularis pontis caudalis

Nrpo

Nucleus reticularis pontis oralis

NRTP

nucleus reticularis tegmenti pontis

PAG

Periaqueductal gray

ped

Cerebral peduncle

pl

Petrosal lobule

PMD

Paramedian lobule

PN

Pontine nuclei

dp

Dorsal peduncular

dl

Dorsolateral

dm

Dorsomedial

l

Lateral

m

Medial

r

Rostral

v

Ventral

PRN

Paramedian reticular nucleus

Nrpd

Dorsal paramedian reticular nucleus

Nrpv

Ventral paramedian reticular nucleus

Rn

Raphe nuclei

SO

Superior olive

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ines Kralj-Hans
    • 1
  • Joan S. Baizer
    • 2
  • Catherine Swales
    • 3
  • Mitchell Glickstein
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of AnatomyUniversity College LondonLondonEngland
  2. 2.Department of Physiology and BiophysicsUniversity at BuffaloBuffaloUSA
  3. 3.Nuffield Orthopaedic CentreHeadingtonEngland

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