Experimental Brain Research

, Volume 165, Issue 2, pp 152–166 | Cite as

Postural responses triggered by multidirectional leg lifts and surface tilts

Research Article

Abstract

The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between proactive and reactive components of postural control. We contrasted the kinematic and electromyographic (EMG) responses to multidirectional voluntary leg lifts with those elicited by unexpected surface tilts. In particular, we addressed the role of trunk stabilization following either a voluntary or forced weight shift from double to single limb support. Nine young female subjects stood with a standing posture of 45° toe-out and their arms abducted to shoulder level. On the experimenter’s signal, subjects either (1) lifted one leg as fast as possible in one of six directions (R/L side, R/L diagonal front, R/L diagonal back) to a height of 45° or (2) maintained standing as the support surface tilted at a rate of 53°/s to a height of 10° in one of six directions (R/L-up, R/L diagonal toes-up, R/L diagonal toes-down). For both tasks, our results showed that the center of pressure (COP) displacement began before or in conjunction with displacement of the center of mass (COM), after which the COP oscillated about the horizontal projection of the COM. In addition, the muscles were recruited in a distal-to-proximal sequence, either in anticipation of the voluntary leg lift or in response to the sudden surface tilt. Thus, the COP was being used dynamically to control displacement of the COM. The axial postural strategy comprising head, trunk, and pelvis movements was quantified by means of principal component analysis. More than 95% of the variance in the data could be described by the first two eigenvectors, which revealed specific coordination patterns dominated by pelvis rotation in one direction and head/trunk rotation in the opposite direction. Unexpected surface tilting elicited an automatic response strategy that focused on controlling the orientation of the head and trunk with respect to the vertical gravity vector while trunk verticality was compromised for movement generation and the recovery of postural equilibrium during leg lifting. In conclusion, regardless of the type (voluntary versus involuntary) or direction of perturbation, the strategy employed by the central nervous system to control the body COM displacement concerns mainly trunk stabilization.

Keywords

Posture Equilibrium Anticipation Feedback Principal component analysis 

References

  1. Allum JH, Honegger F (1998) Interactions between vestibular and proprioceptive inputs triggering and modulating human balance-correcting responses differ across muscles. Exp Brain Res 121:478–494CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Allum JH, Gresty M, Keshner E, Shupert C (1997) The control of head movements during human balance corrections. J Vestib Res 7:189–218CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Andersen RA, Snyder LH, Li CS, Stricanne B (1993) Coordinate transformations in the representation of spatial information. Curr Opin Neurobiol 3:171–176CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Assaiante C, Amblard B (1993) Ontogenesis of head stabilization in space during locomotion in children: influence of visual cues. Exp Brain Res 93:499–515CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Assiante C, McKinley PA, Amblard B (1997) Head-trunk coordination during hops using one or two feet in children and adults. J Vestib Res 7:145–160CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Baroni G, Ferrigno G, Rabuffetti M, Pedotti A, Massion J (1999) Long-term adaptation of postural control in microgravity. Exp Brain Res 128:410–416CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Bianchi L, Angelini D, Orani GP, Lacquaniti F (1998) Kinematic coordination in human gait: relation to mechanical energy cost. J Neurophysiol 79:2155–2170PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Borghese NA, Bianchi L, Lacquaniti F (1996) Kinematic determinants of human locomotion. J Physiol 494:863–879PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Clement G, Pozzo T, Berthoz A (1988) Contribution of eye positioning to control of the upside-down standing posture. Exp Brain Res 73:569–576CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Diener H-C, Dichgans J (1988) On the role of vestibular, visual and somatosensory information for dynamic postural control in humans. Prog Brain Res 76:253–262PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Do MC, Nouillot P, Bouisset S (1991) Is balance or posture at the end of a voluntary movement programmed? Neurosci Lett 130:9–11CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Fung J, Johnstone E (1998) Lost in space: multi-axial and multi-dimensional surface perturbations delivered by a novel motion base device. Soc Neurosci Abs 24:1158Google Scholar
  13. Grasso R, Zago M, Lacquaniti F (2000) Interactions between posture and locomotion: motor patterns in humans walking with bent posture versus erect posture. J Neurophysiol 83:288–300PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Henry SM, Fung J, Horak F (1998) Control of stance during lateral and anterior/posterior surface translations. IEEE Trans Rehab Eng 6:32–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Hlavacka F, Mergner T, Krizkova M (1996) Control of the body vertical by vestibular and proprioceptive inputs. Brain Res Bull 40:431–434CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Hodges P, Cresswell A, Thortensson A (1999) Preparatory trunk motion accompanies rapid upper limb movement. Exp Brain Res 124:69–79CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Kaminski TR, Simpkins S (2001) The effects of stance configuration and target distance on reaching I. Movement preparation. Exp Brain Res 136:439–446CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Kavounoudias A, Roll R, Roll J-P (1998) The plantar sole is a “dynamometric map” for human balance control. Neuroreport 9:3247–3252PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Kavounoudias A, Roll R, Roll J-P (2001) Foot sole and ankle muscle inputs contribute jointly to human erect posture regulation. J Physiol 532:869–878CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Lyon IN, Day B (1997) Control of frontal plane body motion in human stepping. Exp Brain Res 115:488–507Google Scholar
  21. Macpherson JM (1994) The force constraint strategy for stance is independent of prior experience. Exp Brain Res 101:397–405CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Massion J (1992) Movement, posture and equilibrium: interaction and coordination. Prog Neurobiol 38:35–56CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Massion J, Fabre JC, Mouchnino L, Obadia A (1995) Body orientation and regulation of the center of gravity during movement under water. J Vestib Res 5:211–221CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Massion J, Popov K, Fabre JC, Rage P, Gurfinkel V (1997) Is the erect posture in microgravity based on control of trunk orientation or center of mass position? Exp Brain Res 114:384–389PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Mauer C, Mergner T, Bolha B, Hlavacka F (2000) Vestibular, visual, and somatosensory contributions to human control of upright stance. Neurosci Lett 281:99–102CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. McIlroy WE, Bent LR, Potvin JR, Brooke JD, Maki BE (1999) Preparatory balance adjustments precede withdrawal response to noxious stimulation in standing humans. Neurosci Lett 267:197–200CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Mergner T, Siebold C, Schweigart G, Becker W (1991) Human perception of horizontal trunk and head rotation in space during vestibular and neck stimulation. Exp Brain Res 85:389–404CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Mergner T, Hlavacka F, Schweigart G (1993) Interaction of vestibular and proprioceptive inputs. J Vestib Res 3:41–57PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Merkle LA, Layne CS, Bloomberg JJ, Zhang JJ (1998) Using factor analysis to identify neuromuscular synergies during treadmill walking. J Neurosci Methods 82:207–214CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Mille ML, Mouchnino L (1998) Are human anticipatory postural adjustments affected by a modification of the initial position of the center of gravity? Neurosci Lett 242:61–64CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Mouchnino L, Aurenty R, Massion J, Pedotti A (1992) Coordination between equilibrium and head-trunk orientation during leg movement: a new strategy built up by training. J Neurophysiol 67:1587–1598PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Mouchnino L, Aurenty R, Massion J, Pedotti A (1993) Is the trunk a reference frame for calculating leg position? Neuroreport 4:125–127PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Mouchnino L, Cincera M, Fabre JC, Assaiante C, Amblard B, Pedotti A, Massion J (1996) Is the regulation of the center of mass maintained during leg movement under microgravity conditions? J Neurophysiol 76:1212–1223PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Nashner LM, Shupert CL, Horak FB (1988) Head-trunk movement coordination in the standing posture. Prog Brain Res 76:243–251PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Pozzo T, Berthoz A, Lefort L (1990) Head stabilization during various locomotor tasks in humans. I. Normal subjects. Exp Brain Res 82:97–106CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Pozzo T, Levik Y, Berthoz A (1992) Head stabilization in the frontal plane during complex equilibrium tasks in humans. In: Woollacott M, Horak F (eds) Posture and gait: control mechanisms. University of Oregon Books, Eugene OR, pp 118–121Google Scholar
  37. Pozzo T, Levik Y, Berthoz A (1995) Head and trunk movements in the frontal plane during complex dynamic equilibrium tasks in humans. Exp Brain Res 106:327–338CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Preuss R, Fung J (2004) A simple method to estimate force plate inertial components in a moving surface. J Biomech 37:1177-1180CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Rogers MW, Pai YC (1990) Dynamic transitions in stance support accompanying leg flexion movements in man. Exp Brain Res 81:398–402CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Rogers MW, Pai YC (1995) Organization of preparatory postural responses for the initiation of lateral body motion during goal directed leg movements. Neurosci Lett 187:99–102CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Roll R, Kavounoudias A, Roll J-P (2002) Cutaneous afferent from human plantar sole contribute to body posture awareness. Neuroreport 13:1957–1961CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Winter DA (1990) Biomechanics and control of human movement, 2nd edn. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Physical & Occupational TherapyMcGill UniversityMontrealCanada
  2. 2.Research Center (site of the Montreal Interdisciplinary Research Center in Rehabilitation, CRIR)Jewish Rehabilitation HospitalLavalCanada

Personalised recommendations